Jimmy Crack Corn Meaning

(The Southern stables grits and corn meal are necessarily finely-cracked corn). So, the meaning of "Jimmy crack corn"---as I used to be told--- was once a shortened version of , "Jimmy's in the cracked corn", meaning that the mule had found a way, or broken some way, into the place the cracked corn was stored, and was having a treat."Jimmy Crack Corn" is the second and final single taken from the Shady Records compilation album Eminem Presents: The Re-Up. The track features vocals from Eminem and 50 Cent, and the one version features vocals from Cashis, who also featured on "You Don't Know". "Jimmy Crack Corn" was once the ultimate single that Eminem recorded and released sooner than his December 2007 drug overdose, wherein heJimmy crack corn. Posted by way of ESC on May 03, 2003. In Reply to: What the heck does this mean? posted by way of LisSuz on May 03, 2003: What the heck does "Jimmy cracked the corn" imply within the old 'tune lyrics'.."Jimmy cracked the corn and I don't care. Jimmy cracked the corn and I dont care, the master is gone away".The track "Jimmy Crack Corn" is sometimes called "Blue Tail Fly". I needed to glance up a solution as a result of your question made me curious and I thought most likely this song has an interesting history. It does. It's is an American track and it became fashionable duri...Now, eventually, to the part about cracking corn. That was an overly old piece of slang for sitting around idly gossiping. A more likely explanation is that Jimmy cracked open a jug of his late grasp's...

Jimmy Crack Corn (Eminem song) - Wikipedia

Jimmy Crack Corn Lyrics: Man! Let's pass / Hey yo, Fif'! / Yeah? / Call 'em and inform 'em... / It's time to hate us again / We're back! / Haha! / Jimmy can crack corn, but I don't care / My enemiesJimmy Crack Corn - the Blue Tail Fly Lyrics: Refr: Jimmy crack corn an' I don't care / Jimmy crack corn an' I do not care / Jimmy crack corn an' I do not care / The Master's long gone away / When I used to be"Jimmy Crack Corn," sometimes called "Blue Tail Fly," might be a cheery, upbeat song, but its true underlying meaning is dark.The tune was once at the beginning revealed within the 1840s and was once popular a number of the rise of blackface minstrelsy.There is somewhat numerous debate about the meaning of the road, 'Jimmy crack corn'. It may just, as an example, check with the grasp cracking his head open, or to the slave being fed on a discounted diet of corn as punishment for his grasp's demise. See this Wikipedia article for a fuller discussion. Jimmy Crack Corn remains a well-liked youngsters's tune.

Jimmy Crack Corn (Eminem song) - Wikipedia

Jimmy crack corn - phrase meaning and origin

It's about a slave rejoicing about his grasp's demise. That "crack-corn" refers to the master "cracking" open his cranium/head (the "corn" or kernel) in the fall, but the slaves were not allowed to...There has been a lot conjecture over the meaning of "Jimmy Crack Corn and I don't care." However, within the oldest version it is "jim crack corn", and "jim crack" has at all times meant one thing reasonable or shoddily built, and "corn" is an American euphemism for "corn whiskey". From a petrol engineer's standpoint, this would simply refer to corn whiskey.There has been a lot debate over the meaning of "Jimmy Crack Corn". In the unique version the lyrics learn "jim crack corn". "Jim crack" or "gimcrack" way shoddily built. Additionally, "corn" is regarded as an American euphemism for " corn whiskey "."Jimmy Crack Corn" used to be an abolitionist track, and that "blue-tail fly" referred to federal troops in their blue uniforms overthrowing the slave house owners. The creator of the tune, though no longer undoubtedly recognized, was most certainly a Virginia Minstrel named Daniel Emmett, a popular songwriter and musician whose best-known composition was the southern anthemJimmy Crack Corn is an American folk music sung by way of Roger in his character of Krispy Kreme McDonald when he's taking over Steve's band and plays on the Langley 4th of July Festival in American Dream Factory.To steer clear of paying royalties, "Krispy Kreme McDonald's Jam-Tasic Roller Boogie Prawn Experience" performs songs within the public area.

Jimmy Crack Corn | Culture Wikia

"Jimmy Crack Corn" or "Blue Tail Fly" is an American song which first was widespread right through the upward thrust of blackface minstrelsy within the 1840s via performances via the Virginia Minstrels. It regained currency as a folks song within the Nineteen Forties in the beginning of the American folk song revival and has since change into a popular youngsters's track. Over the years, several variants have gave the impression.

Most versions include some idiomatic African English, although sanitized General American versions now predominate. The fundamental narrative stays intact. On the outside, the tune is a black slave's lament over his white grasp's death in a horseriding twist of fate. The track, however, can also be—and is—interpreted as having a subtext of party about that death[3][4] and of the slave's having contributed to it through deliberate negligence[5][6] or even deniable action.

Contents

1 Lyrics 2 Melody 3 Meaning 4 History 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 External hyperlinks

Lyrics

Jim Crack Corn or the Blue tail Fly (1846)[2]

When I was younger I us'd to wait

On Massa and hand him de plate; Pass down de bottle when he git dry, And bresh away de blue tail fly.  Jim crack corn I don't care,  Jim crack corn I do not care,  Jim crack corn I don't care,  Ole Massa long past away. Den arter dinner massa sleep, He bid dis niggar vigil stay; An' when he gwine to close his eye, He tell me watch de blue tail fly.  Jim crack corn &c. An' when he journey in de arternoon, I foller wid a hickory broom; De poney being berry shy When bitten by de blue tail fly.  Jim crack corn &c. One day he rode aroun' de farm, De flies so numerous dey did swarm; One chance to chunk 'im at the thigh, De debble take dat blu tail fly.  Jim crack corn &c. De poney run, he leap an' pitch, An' tumble massa in de ditch; He died, an' de jury marvel'd why De verdic was de blue tail fly.  Jim crack corn &c. Dey laid 'im beneath a 'simmon tree, His epitaph am dar to peer: 'Beneath this stone I'm compelled to lie, All by de means ob de blue tail fly.  Jim crack corn &c. Ole massa long gone, now let 'im leisure, Dey say all tings am for de perfect; I nebber put out of your mind until de day I die, Ole massa an' dat blue tail fly.  Jim crack corn &c. De hornet gets in your eyes an nose,

De skeeter bites y'e through your shut,

De gallinipper sweeten top, But wusser yet de blue tail fly.  Jim crack corn &c. De Blue Tail Fly. A Negro Song.

(1846)[1]

O when you are available in summer time,

To South Carlinar's sultry clime, If in de color you probability to lie, You'll soon to find out de blue tail fly,  An scratch 'im wid a brier too. Dar's many sort ob dese right here tings, From diff'hire sort ob insects springs; Some hatch in June, an some July, But August fotches de blue tail fly,  An scratch 'im wid a brier too. When I used to be young, I used to attend On Massa's table an hand de plate; I'de move de bottle when he dry, An brush away de blue tail fly.  An scratch 'im &c. Den arter dinner massa sleep, He bid me vigilance to keep; An when he gwine to close he eye, He inform me watch de blue tail fly.  An scratch 'im &c. When he trip in de arternoon, I foller wid a hickory broom; De poney being berry shy, When bitten by way of de blue tail fly.  An scratch 'im &c. One day he rode aroun de farm, De flies so numerous did swarm; One probability to chunk 'im on de thigh, De debble take dat blue tail fly.  An scratch 'im &c. De poney run, he bounce, an pitch, An tumble massa in de ditch; He died, an de Jury marvel why, De verdict used to be, de "blue tail fly."  An scratch 'im &c. Dey laid 'im under a simmon tree, His epitaph am dar to look; Beneath dis stone I'm compelled to lie, All by way of de approach ob de blue tail fly.  An scratch 'im &c. Ole Massa's long gone, now let him leisure, Dey say all tings am for de highest; I neber shall put out of your mind until de day I die, Ole Massa an de blue tail fly.  An scratch 'im &c. De hornet will get on your eyes an nostril,

De skeeter bites y'e thru your close,

De gallinipper sweeten top, But wusser yet de blue tail fly.  An scratch 'im &c. Jim Crack Com'.

(1847)[12]

I SING about de long-tail blue,

So incessantly you want someting new; Wid your need I'll now comply, An' sing about de blue-tail fly.  Jim Crack com', I don't care,  Jim Crack com', I do not care,  Jim Crack com', I don't care.   Ole Massa smartly a-day. When I was home, I used to attend On Massa—han' him roun' de plate; I pass'd de bottle when he used to be dry, An' brush'd away de blue-tail fly.    Jim Crack com', &c Ole Massa journey in de arternoon, I follows him wid a kickeribroom; De pony rear'd when he used to be dry, An' bitten through de blue-tail fly.    Jim Crack com', &c.

De pony bounce'd, he rear'd, he pitch'd,

He tumbled Massa in a ditch; De wonder was once he did not die, When bitten by means of de blue-tail fly.    Jim Crack com', &c.

Dey buried him 'neath a simmon tree;

His paragraph is dere, you'll be able to see; Beneath de shade he's pressured to lie, All via de manner ob de blue-tail fly.    Jim Crack com', &c. Ole Massa's useless, so let him res'; Dey say all tings is for de bes'. I shall neber put out of your mind to de day I die, Ole Massa an' de blue-tail fly.    Jim Crack com', &c. Jim Crack Corn! I Don't Care.

(1847)[13]

If you should cross in summer time,

To Souf Carolina sultra clime,[15] And in de shade you likelihood to lie, You'll soon find but dat blue tail fly.  Jim crack corn I do not care!  Jim crack corn! I do not care.   For massa me gave away. When I was young I used to attend,

On massa's desk and hand de plate,

I'd move the bottle when he dry, An brush away de blue tail fly.    Jim crack, &c. When ole massa take his sleep, He bid dis nigga sight to keep, And when he gows to close his eye, He inform me watch dat blue tail fly.    Jim crack, &c. Ole massa experience in arternoon,

I observe arter wid a hickory broom,

De pony he's bery shy, Kase he bitten by de blue tail fly.    Jim crack, &c. De pony run dar jump an pitch, He trowed ole massa within the ditch, He died an de Jury all did cry, Dat de verdict was once de blue tail fly.    Jim crack, &c. Ole massa's useless now let him rest, Dey say all tings am for de highest, I nebber shall overlook till the day I die, Ole massa and de blue tail fly.    Jim crack, &c.

Jim Crack Corn. (1848)[16][17][19]

When I was younger I used to wait

On Massa and hand him de plate;

Pass down de bottle when he get dry,

And brush away de blue-tail fly.  Jim crack corn I do not care,  Jim crack corn I do not care,  Jim crack corn I don't care,  Ole Massa gone away. Den arter dinner massa sleep, He bid dis niggar vigil keep; An' when he gwine to close his eye, He inform me watch de blue-tail fly.  Jim crack corn, &c. An' when he trip in de arternoon, I foller wid a hickory broom; De poney being berry shy, When bitten through de blue-tail fly.  Jim crack corn, &c. One day he rode around de farm, De flies so numerous dey did swarm; One likelihood to bite him on the thigh De debble take dat blue-tail fly.  Jim crack corn, &c. De poney run, he soar an' pitch, An tumble massa in de ditc' He died, an' de jury marvel'd why De verdic used to be de blue-tail fly  Jim crack corn, &c. Dey laid 'im beneath a 'simmon tree, His epitaph am dar to see: 'Beneath dis stone I'm forced to lie, All by de approach ob de blue-tail fly.'  Jim crack corn, &c. Ole massa long past, now let 'im leisure, Dey say all tings am for de highest; I neber put out of your mind till de day I die, Ole massa an' dat blue-tail fly  Jim crack corn, &c. Blue Tailed Fly.

(c. 1850)[20]

If you must cross, in summer season,

To South Carolinar's sultry clime, An' in de coloration you likelihood to lie, You'll quickly to find out de blue tail fly. An' scratch 'um wid a briar too. Dar's many type ob curious tings, From different sort ob inseck springs; Some hatch in June an' some July, But Augus fotches de blue tail fly. An' scratch 'um wid a briar too. When I was young I used to attend On massa desk and hand de plate I'd pass de bottle when he dry, Den brush away de blue tail fly. An' scratch 'um wid a briar too. Den arter dinner massa sleeps, He bid dis nigga vigils assists in keeping; An' when he gwine to shut his eye, He inform me watch de blue tail fly. An' scratch 'um wid a briar too. When he journey in de arternoon, I foller wid a hickory brom; De pony being berry shy, When bitten by way of de blue tail fly. An' scratch 'um wid a briar too. One day he rode aroun de farm, De flies so a lot of did swarm, One probability to chew 'im on de thigh, De debil take de blue tail fly. An' scratch 'um wid a briar too. De pony run he bounce an'`pitch, An' tumbl'd massa in de ditch; He died and de jury questioned why—

De verdic used to be de blue tail fly.

An' scratch 'um wid a briar too. Dey laid him underneath a 'simmon tree, His epitaph am dere to peer 'Beneath this stone I'm compelled to lie, All by means of de approach ob de blue tail fly. An' scratch 'um wid a briar too. Ole massa's long past, now let 'im relaxation, Dey say all tings am for de easiest; I neber shall disregard until de day I die, Ole massa an' dat blue tail fly. An' scratch 'um wid a briar too.

De hornet will get to your eyes and nostril,

De skeeter chunk you troo your clothes; De yalla nipper sweeten prime, But wusser but de blue tail fly. An' scratch 'um wid a briar too. From Children of Destiny

(1893)[21]

When I was young, I useter to attend

Behine ole marster, han' he plate, An' move de bottle when he dry, An' bresh away dat blue-tail fly.  Jim, crack corn, I doan' keer,  Jim, crack corn, I doan' keer,  Jim, crack corn, I doan' keer,   Ole—marster's—long gone—away! ...

Melody

The melody is similar to "Miss Lucy Long" and was initially set for piano accompaniment,[3] even though "De Blue Tail Fly" was marketed in Boston as one among "Emmett's Banjo Melodies".[22] The four-part chorus favors a unmarried bass and 3 tenors: the primary and third tenors harmonize in thirds with the second completes the triads or doubles the root, every so often crossing the melody line.[3] The versions printed in 1846 differed fairly markedly: "De Blue Tail Fly" is modal (even though Lhamar emends its B♭ notation to C minor) and hexatonic; "Jim Crack Corn", meanwhile, is in G primary and extra simply singable.[3] Its simplicity has made it a common beginner's track for acoustic guitar.[23] The melody is a sequence of thirds (G-B, F♯-A, G-B, [A]-C, B-D, C-E) harmonized a 3rd above and beneath in the approach of the choruses in Italian opera.[3]

Meaning

The first verses normally identify that the singer used to be to start with a area slave.[24] He is then charged with protective the master outside—and his horse as neatly—from the "blue-tailed fly". This is most likely the blue-bottle fly[26] (Calliphora vomitoria[27] or Protophormia terraenovae), however almost certainly the mourning horsefly (Tabanus atratus), a bloodsucking pest with a blue-black abdomen[28] discovered all the way through the American South.[29][30] In this, the singer, ultimately, is unsuccessful; the pony is going wild, and the grasp is thrown and killed. A coroner's jury is convened to analyze the grasp's demise, or the singer is criminally charged with that loss of life, but owing to the "blue-tail fly," the slave escapes culpability.

The refrain will also be mystifying to fashionable listeners, however its straightforward meaning is that somebody is more or less milling ("cracking") the old grasp's corn in preparation for turning it into hominy[33] or liquor.[34] There has been much debate, then again, over the subtext. In the 19th century, the singer was once often considered mournful and despondent at his grasp's death; within the 20th, celebratory: "Jimmy Crack Corn" has been called "the baldest, most loving account of the master's demise" in American song.[5]

The debate has been additional muddled by means of adjustments to the refrain through the years. Throughout the 19th century, the lines referred to "Jim",[2] "Jim Crack",[12] or "Jim Crack Corn"[37] and lacked any conjunction around the line's caesura; following the upward push of highly-syncopated musical genres equivalent to ragtime and jazz, anaptyxis transformed the identify to "Jimmy" or "Jimmie" and the "and" appeared, both placing extra tension on their measures' backbeat. This has obscured one of the vital conceivable authentic meanings: some have argued that—as "Jim" used to be a generic name for slaves in minstrel songs—the tune's "Jim" was the similar person as its blackface narrator: Speaking about himself in the third individual or repeating his new masters' commands in apostrophe, he has no fear together with his demotion to a box hand now that his old grasp is useless. Another now-obscured conceivable meaning derives from jim crack being eye dialect[40] for gimcrack ("worthless"[38][41]):[43] The narrator is so conquer with emotion (be it excitement or sorrow) that he has no concern at all about his gimcrack cracked corn, his substandard rations.[3] Since "corn" was once also a not unusual rural American ellipsis and euphemism for "corn whiskey",[45] it could additionally confer with the slave being so overcome that he has no fear about his rotgut alcohol.[46]

Other suppositions include that "cracking" or "cracking corn" referred to the now-obsolete English and Appalachian slang meaning "to gossip" or "to sit around chitchatting";[47] that the singer is resting from his oversight duties and permitting Jim to scouse borrow corn or corn liquor; that "Jim Crack" is just a synonym for "Jim Crow" by way of the dialectical "crack" to reference the crake; or that it is all code for the previous master "Jim" cracking his "corn" (skull) open all the way through his fall. The 1847 model of the tune printed in London singularly has the lyrics "Jim Crack com’", which could refer to a poor Southern cracker[48] (presumably an overseer or new proprietor) or a minced oath for Jesus Christ (thus referencing indifference on the Judgment Day); the similar model explicitly makes the fly's identify a wordplay at the earlier minstrel hit "Long Tail Blue", a couple of horse. Numerous racehorses were named "Jim Crack" or "Blue Tail Fly" and, in at least one early-Twentieth century variant of the song, it's given as the title of the horse that killed the master,[49] but that isn't a not unusual part of the song. (Another uncommon variant appeared within the 1847 Songs of Ireland printed in New York: it has the slave being given away by way of the grasp.[13])

Explanations of the music primarily based upon "jimmy" or "jimmie" being slaves' slang for crows or mules (here being allowed into the previous master's corn fields as an alternative of being chased away) or deriving "jimmy" from "gimme" are unsupported via the present information. Pete Seeger, as an example, is alleged to have maintained that the unique lyrics have been "gimme cracked corn" and referred to a punishment wherein a slave's bacon rations have been curtailed, leaving him chickenfeed;[50][53] the similar lines could additionally simply be requesting the whiskey jug to be handed around. The concept that Jim or Jimmy is "cracking open" a jug of whiskey is in a similar way unsupported: that phrasal verb is attested at least as early as 1803[54] however first of all carried out to literal ruptures; its application to opening the cap or cork of a bottle of alcohol was a later building.

History

The provide tune is in most cases credited to Dan Emmett's Virginia Minstrels,[10] whose displays in New York City within the mid-1840s helped elevate minstrelsy to national consideration.[55] Along with "Old Dan Tucker", the song was probably the most breakout hits of the style[56] and continued to headline Emmett's acts with Bryant's Minstrels into the 1860s.[55] It was once also a not unusual music of Tom Rice's.[57] The tune was first printed (with two distinct sets of lyrics) in Baltimore and Boston in 1846, although it's on occasion mistakenly dated to 1844.[1] However, as with later rockabilly hits, it is somewhat imaginable Emmett merely gained credit score for arranging and publishing an existing African-American song.[11] The music was once surely picked up by slaves and was broadly fashionable amongst them.[58] The chorus of the song now not uncommonly gave the impression in the middle of different African-American people songs, considered one of which may have been its authentic supply.[59] The tune differed from other minstrel tunes in lengthy final standard among African Americans: it was once recorded through each Big Bill Broonzy and Lead Belly after World War II.

Abraham Lincoln used to be an admirer of the song, calling it "that buzzing song". Throughout the 19th century, it was once normally accompanied by way of the harmonica or by humming which mimicked the humming of the fly (which on at least one instance used to be famous disrupting the parliament of Victoria, Australia.[60]). Lincoln would ask his buddy Ward Lamon to sing and play it on his banjo[61] and most likely played along on his harmonica.[62] It is alleged that he requested for it to be performed as the lead-in to his cope with at Gettysburg.[10][11]

Following World War II, the "Blue Tail Fly" used to be repopularized via the Andrews Sisters' 1947 recording with the folk singer Burl Ives. It then turned into a part of the general Folk Revival throughout the '50s and early '60s sooner than losing choose to more politically-charged fare, as parodied by way of Tom Lehrer's "Folk Song Army". A 1963 Time article averred that "instead of... chronicling the life cycle of the blue-tailed fly", the "most sought-after folk singers in the business"—including Pete Seeger, Theodore Bikel, and Bob Dylan—were "singing with hot-eyed fervor about police dogs and racial murder".[63] All the similar, Seeger claimed to have been present when Alan Lomax[65] first taught the music to Burl Ives for a CBS radio show[64] and their duet on the 92nd Street Y in New York in 1993 was once Ives' last public efficiency.[66]

An instrumental rock model of the track used to be recorded by way of Johnny and The Hurricanes in 1960, and released on Warwick Records, catalog number M-520. It charted Billboard quantity 15 in the United States and quantity 8 in the UK.

Seeger maintained that the tune's subtext gave it a social justice part[50] however started (with 1953's American Folksongs for Children) to perform and marketplace the paintings as a kids's sing-along. Usually underneath the title "Jimmy Crack Corn", it remains commonplace at campfires and summer camps.[57] It is also sampled in a lot of rap songs—including Tuff Crew and Eminem's compositions (each titled "Jimmy Crack Corn")—playing at the provide usage of "crack".

In pop culture

Cover variations and musical cameos [show]

Film and television [display]

Animation and comics [display]

Fiction [show]

Advertising [display]

See additionally

"Shoo, Fly, Don't Bother Me!" "Polly, Wolly, Doodle", any other minstrel tune nonetheless sung by American youngsters Slave Songs of the United States Songs of the Underground Railroad

References

1.^ Jump as much as: a b c d "De Blue Tail Fly" used to be printed by way of both Keith's Music House[7] and Oliver Ditson[8] in Boston in 1846, however Eric Lott (mentioning Hans Nathan[9]) offers the model a date of 1844.[5] This most certainly refers to Christy's Minstrels' Ethiopian Glee Book, which has now and again been mistakenly attributed to 1844; in reality, that sequence didn't begin publishing till 1847 and did not come with Christy's version of this tune until its 1848 edition.[10][11] 2.^ Jump up to: a b c The Virginia Minstrels, No. 5. "Jim Crack Corn or the Blue tail Fly, Composed for the Piano Forte". F.D. Benteen (Baltimore), 1846. Hosted through the Temple Sheet Music Collections at the Temple University Libraries. Accessed 1 July 2014. 3.^ Jump as much as: a b c d e f g Mahar, William J. Behind the Burnt Cork Mask: Early Blackface Minstrelsy and Antebellum American Popular Culture, pp. 234 ff. University of Illinois Press (Champaign), 1999. 4.Jump up ^ Harris, Middleton & al. The Black Book, 35th ann. ed., p. 32. Random House (New York), 2009. 5.^ Jump up to: a b c Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class, pp. 199–200. Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1993. ISBN 0-19-509641-X. 6.Jump up ^ Friedman, Alfred B. (ed.). The Viking Book of Folk Ballads of the English Speaking World cited in "Jimmy Crack…" at Mudcat.org. 7.Jump up ^ "De Blue Tail Fly." Keith's Music Publishing House (Boston), 1846. Reprinted in Mahar, pp. 237 f.[3] 8.Jump up ^ "De Blue Tail Fly. A Negro Song." Oliver Ditson (Boston), 1846. Hosted in Pre-1852 Minstrel Songs at Uncle Tom's Cabin & American Culture at the University of Virginia. Accessed 1 July 2014. 9.Jump up ^ Nathan, Hans. Dan Emmett and the Rise of Early Negro Minstrelsy, pp. 429–431. University of Oklahoma Press (Norman), 1962. 10.^ Jump as much as: a b c Place, Jeff & al. "Blue Tail Fly" (liner notes). American Favorite Ballads, Vol. 1. Smithsonian Folkways, 2002. 11.^ Jump as much as: a b c Fuld, James J. The Book of World-Famous Music: Classical, Popular, and Folk, fifth ed., p. 312. Dover Publications (New York), 2000. 12.^ Jump up to: a b c "Jim Crack com’" in The Vauxhall Comic Song-book, pp. 202–203. 13.^ Jump as much as: a b Songs of Ireland and Other Lands; Being a Collection of the Most Popular Irish, Sentimental and Comic Songs, pp. 271 f. D. & J. Sadlier & Co. (New York), 1847. 14.^ Jump up to: a b c Scarborough, Dorothy. On the Trail of Negro Folk-Songs, pp. Two hundred ff. Harvard University Press (Cambridge), 1925. Hosted at Archive.org. Accessed 3 July 2014. 15.Jump up ^ Dorothy Scarborough's 1925 On the Trail of Negro Folk-Songs information a variant changing "South Carolina" with "old Virginia".[14] 16.Jump up ^ 'Chaff, Gumbo'. The Ethiopian Glee Book: Containing the Songs Sung via the Christy Minstrels, with Many Other Popular Negro Melodies, in Four Parts, Arranged for Quartett Clubs, No. 2, p. 64. Elias Howe (Boston), 1848. 17.Jump up ^ Sometimes mistakenly attributed to 1844.[1] 18.Jump up ^ Minstrel Songs, Old and New, a Collection of World-Wide, Famous Minstrel and Plantation Songs, Including the Most Popular of the Celebrated Foster Melodies; Arranged with Piano-Forte Accompaniment, p. 211. Oliver Ditson (Boston), 1882. 19.Jump up ^ With some minor change of punctuation, that is the version that used to be republished via Oliver Ditson in next tune books.[18] 20.Jump up ^ "Blue Tailed Fly." in Christy's Nigga Songster, Containing Songs As Are Sung through Christy's, Pierce's, White's Sable Brothers, & Dumbleton's Band of Minstrels, pp. 45–47. T.W. Strong (New York), c. 1850. Hosted in Pre-1852 Minstrel Songs at Uncle Tom's Cabin & American Culture at the University of Virginia. Accessed 1 July 2014. 21.Jump up ^ Seawell, Molly E. Children of Destiny, p. 2. D. Appleton & Company (New York), 1893. 22.Jump up ^ The Boston Musical Gazette, Vol. I: 1846, p. 62: "New Music by C.H. Keith". A.N. Johnson (Boston), 1846. 23.Jump up ^ John Pearse's 1963 Teach Yourself Folk Guitar, e.g., uses the tune as its first two classes, on tuning the guitar and acting fundamental scratch. 24.Jump up ^ The Traditional Ballad Index: "The Blue Tail Fly [Laws I19]". 25.Jump up ^ Oxford English Dictionary. "Appeals: blue-arsed fly" 27 Sept 2012. Accessed 8 Jul 2014. 26.Jump up ^ The blue-bottle fly now appears in British proverbs as the "blue-arsed fly" but this identify does no longer seem to predate the twentieth century.[25] 27.Jump up ^ See, e.g., Kirkland, A.H. Letter of 20 Sept 1897 within the "Report of the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries and Game for the Year Ending December 31, 1897", p. 12. Wright & Potter Printing (Boston), 1898. 28.Jump up ^ Eaton, Eric R.; Kenn Kaufman. (2007). "Deer flies and horse flies". Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America. Hillstar Editions. p. 284. ISBN 0-618-15310-1. 29.Jump up ^ Murphree, Steve. (2006). "Learn to live with and respect horse flies and deer flies" (PDF). The Tennessee Conservationist. 72 (4). 30.Jump up ^ Mullens, Bradley A.; Lance Durden. (2009). "Horse flies and deer flies (Tabanidae)". In Gary Mullen (ed.). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. pp. 254–267 (254). ISBN 0-12-372500-3. 31.Jump up ^ Cooper, James Fenimore. The Last of the Mohicans, Ch. xxviii. 32.Jump up ^ Cooper, James Fenimore. The Prairie, Ch. ii. 33.Jump up ^ See, e.g., James Fenimore Cooper's notes using the expression "cracked corn" to give an explanation for succotash in The Last of the Mohicans[31] and a hominy-mortar in The Prairie.[32] 34.Jump up ^ See, e.g, Foote, Elmer. Elmer L. Foote Lantern Slide Collection. "Corn Cracking (Step in Moonshine)". c. 1915. 35.Jump up ^ Sharp, J.W. (ed.). "Jim Crack Corn" in The Vauxhall Comic Song-book, p. 92. Lewis & Son (London), 1847. 36.Jump up ^ Eppes, Susan B. Through Some Eventful Years, p. 205, "1 Sept 1863". J.W. Burke (Macon), 1926. Accessed 2 Jul 2014. 37.Jump up ^ As early as the following year (1847), a minstrel song dedicated to the travails of Jim Crack Corn's marriage ceremony day seemed in the same London songbook as the first British version of "Jimmy Crack Corn",[35] which is given as "Jim Crack com'".[12] Susan Eppes's diary of her Civil War years experiences he additionally appeared as a figure in Southern nursery rhymes: "This dress, you must know, is 'made of Mammy's old one' like Jim Crack Corn's coat—Little Diary, I am afraid you do not know very much of Mother Goose."[36] 38.^ Jump up to: a b Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "gimcrack, n. and adj." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1899. 39.Jump up ^ Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary. "Jimcrack". W. & R. Chambers (London), 1908. 40.Jump up ^ The British Oxford English Dictionary dates the variant spelling to the 17th century[38] however the American Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary nonetheless incorporated it as a separate entry as overdue as 1908.[39] 41.Jump up ^ Farmer, John & al. Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, Vol. III: Fla–Hyps. 1893. 42.Jump up ^ Clemens, Samuel (Mark Twain). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Ch. xxvi. Chatto & Windus (London), 1884. 43.Jump up ^ In its noun sense of "trinket" or "bauble", it seems that in Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn: "There was an previous hair trunk in a single nook, and a guitar-box in some other, and all sorts of little knickknacks and jimcracks around, like girls brisken up a room with.[42] 44.Jump up ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "corn, n.¹ Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1893. 45.Jump up ^ Attested by means of the Oxford English Dictionary as occurring through 1820.[44] 46.Jump up ^ Kroes, John. Cracked. "5 Terrifying Origin Stories Behind Popular Children's Songs". 21 Sept 2012. Accessed 6 Jul 2014. 47.Jump up ^ Adams, Cecil. The Straight Dope. "Who is Jimmy, and why does he crack corn?" 30 Oct 1998. Accessed 6 Jul 2014. 48.Jump up ^ A usage attested as early because the 18th century. 49.Jump up ^ From Dorothy Scarborough's On the Trail of Negro Folk-Songs, credited to Garnett Eskew of West Virginia:[14]

I would possibly not forgit until de day I die

  How Master rode de blue-tail fly. Dat pony r'ar, dat pony kick,   An' flinged outdated Master in de ditch.

50.^ Jump as much as: a b Peterson, Pete. "RE: Jimmy Crack Corn and I Don't Care" on Mudcat. Accessed 2 Jan 2006. 51.Jump up ^ Atkinson, Edward. "Food and Land Tenure" in Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 59. Oct 1901. 52.Jump up ^ As, as an example, in Mabel Hawley's Four Little Blossoms at Brookside Farm (Ch. viii, p. 84). 53.Jump up ^ In truth, cracked corn within the type of hominy or grits was once (and stays) a Southern staple,[51] but the rougher milling eager about its production has related it with cattle in other areas.[52] 54.Jump up ^ Mitchill, Samuel & al. The Medical Repository, and Review of American Publications on Medicine, Surgery, and the Auxiliary Branches of Science, Vol. VI. T. & Y. Swords (New York), 1803. 55.^ Jump up to: a b "Dan Emmett" in The Encyclopedia of New York City, 2d ed. 56.Jump up ^ Hi Fi/Stereo Review, Vol. 18, p. 55. Ziff-Davis, 1967. 57.^ Jump as much as: a b Lhamon, W.T. Jr. Jump Jim Crow: Lost Plays, Lyrics, and Street Prose of the First Atlantic Popular Culture, p. 21. Harvard University Press (Cambridge), 2003. 58.Jump up ^ Adler, Mortimer J. The Negro in American History, Vol. III: "Slaves and Masters, 1567—1854", p. 52. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1969. 59.Jump up ^ See, e.g., Scarborough, p. 224, the place apparently in "My Ole Mistis":

My ol' master promised me

  When he died he'd set me free. Now ol' master useless and long gone   An' lef' dis Nigger a-hoein' up corn.    Jim crack corn, I don't care...

60.Jump up ^ Victoria. Parliamentary Debates, Vol. XXXII: Session 1879–80, p. .1961: "November 25, 1879". John Ferres (Melbourne), 1880. 61.Jump up ^ Wright, John. The Language of the Civil War, p. 35: "Blue Tail Fly". Greenwood Publishing. 62.Jump up ^ Erbsen, Wayne. Front Porch Songs, Jokes, & Stories: 48 Great Southern Sing-Along Favorites, p. 10. 1993. 63.Jump up ^ "They Hear America Singing" in Time. 19 Jul 1963. Accessed 2 July 2014. 64.^ Jump as much as: a b Seeger, Peter. American Favorite Ballads. Music Sales (New York), 1961. 65.Jump up ^ Seeger similar that Lomax claimed to have learnt the tune from Dorothy Scarborough's collection[64] On the Trail of Negro Folk-songs.[14] 66.Jump up ^ Holden, Stephen. "The Cream of Folk, Reunited for a Cause" in The New York Times, C 15. 19 May 1993. 67.Jump up ^ Pinto Pete in Arizona, Ep. 5. Hosted at Archive.org. 68.Jump up ^ PRI Records: SPL-2. 69.Jump up ^ "Cingular Pulls Ad After Racism Complaints". CBS Broadcasting Inc. December 16, 2006. Retrieved November 16, 2008.

External hyperlinks

Full lyrics of Dorothy Scarborough's 1925 account in On the Trail of Negro Folk-Songs at Archive.org Full lyrics of Burl Ives's 1947 model at MetroLyrics "Jimmy Crack Corn", a contemporary version recorded in From My People: 400 Years of African American Folklore (Google Books) "The Blue Tail Fly [Laws I19]" on the Traditional Ballad Index Lyr Add: (De) Blue Tail Fly dialogue on Mudcat.org provides a number of variants of identify and lyrics, early publication knowledge; its links come with a lot of different discussions of the track. Accessed 10 Sept 2005. Jimmy Crack Corn – Man or Myth dialogue on Mudcat.org contains dialogue of lyrics, cites additional sources. Accessed 10 Sept 2005.

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