Cuckold Bird

Word History: The allusion to the cuckoo on which the phrase cuckold is based will not be liked through the ones unfamiliar with the nesting behavior of certain forms of this bird. The female of a few cuckoos lays its eggs within the nests of different birds, leaving them to be cared for through the resident nesters. This parasitic tendency has given the female bird a figurative reputation for unfaithfulnessThe word "cuckold" is derived from the cuckoo bird, which lays its eggs in other birds' nests, that means that the birds pass on to raise chicks that are not their very own. "Cuckold" used to be first used inCuckold comes from cuckoo, a bird notorious for laying eggs in the nests of alternative birds, which then unwittingly rear the cuckoo's chicks. The behaviour is called ' brood parasitism '.cuckold (n.) derisive identify for a man whose wife is false to him, "husband of an adulteress," early 13c., kukewald, cokewold, from Old French cucuault, from cocu (see cuckoo) + pejorative suffix -ault, of Germanic origin. So called from the female bird's alleged habit of adjusting associates, or her unique addiction of leaving eggs in another bird's nest.The phrase cuckold derives from the cuckoo bird, alluding to its dependancy of laying its eggs in different birds' nests. The association is not unusual in medieval folklore, literature, and iconography. English usage first seems about 1250 in the medieval debate poem The Owl and the Nightingale.

Cuckold | What is cuckolding?

Watch this, if you happen to never knew what a Cuckoo bird is/does. It's the place the word Cuckold, or "Cuck" comes from in the end. Common Cuckoo chick ejects eggs of Reed Warbler out of the nest.David Attenborough's opinionTurns out the phrase at the start derives from the cuckoo bird, which tends of laying its eggs in other birds' nests. When a human is involved within the act of cuckolding, however, the eggs...Cuckoo birds don't seem to be simply the inspiration for intricate clocks. They're additionally shameless parasites. Brood parasites, that is.Many species of cuckoos had been recognized to depart their eggs in differentCuckold definition is - a person whose wife is untrue. The Many Synonyms of cuckold

Cuckold | What is cuckolding?

Cucks, cuckolds, cuckqueans and cuckoos | Macmillan

Cuckold refers to a person whose wife has been untrue. The time period derived from the word ''cuckoo,'' a connection with the cuckoo bird, which is understood to lay its eggs in different birds' nests.Alternative Title: Cuculidae Cuckoo, any of numerous birds of the circle of relatives Cuculidae (order Cuculiformes). The identify normally designates some 60 arboreal participants of the subfamilies Cuculinae and Phaenicophaeinae.F ew birds have inspired as much folklore because the Common Cuckoo. The cuckoo's distinctive cry [sound] has been the harbinger of spring for hundreds of years in Western Europe. It arrives there in early spring after its yearly migration to East Africa. The adults depart Europe by means of July, so the birds' brief look is very noticeable.The bird whose behavior gave us the phrase "cuckoldry" is an instance of a "brood parasite" — birds, insects, or fish that trick others into raising their younger. This is continuously at the expense of the...The cuckoos are a family of birds, Cuculidae / kjuːˈkjuːlɪdiː /, the only taxon in the order Cuculiformes / kjuːˈkjuːlɪfɔːrmiːz /. The cuckoo circle of relatives includes the typical or European cuckoo, roadrunners, koels, malkohas, couas, coucals and anis.


Jump to navigation Jump to look For different uses, see Cuckoo (disambiguation). "Cuckoo's nest" redirects here. For other uses, see Cuckoo's nest (disambiguation).

CuckoosTemporal vary: Eocene - Holocene, 34–0 Ma PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J Ok Pg N Fan-tailed cuckoo (Cacomantis flabelliformis) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Clade: Otidimorphae Order: CuculiformesWagler, 1830 Family: CuculidaeLeach, 1820 Type species Cuculus canorusLinnaeus, 1758 Genera

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The cuckoos are a circle of relatives of birds, Cuculidae /kjuːˈkjuːlɪdiː/, the sole taxon in the order Cuculiformes /kjuːˈkjuːlɪfɔːrmiːz/.[1][2][3] The cuckoo circle of relatives comprises the average or European cuckoo, roadrunners, koels, malkohas, couas, coucals and anis. The coucals and anis are every so often separated as distinct families, the Centropodidae and Crotophagidae respectively. The cuckoo order Cuculiformes is one in every of three that make up the Otidimorphae, the opposite two being the turacos and the bustards.

The cuckoos are in most cases medium-sized narrow birds. Most species reside in trees, despite the fact that a sizeable minority are ground-dwelling. The circle of relatives has a sophisticated distribution; the majority of species are tropical. Some species are migratory. The cuckoos feed on bugs, insect larvae and quite a lot of other animals, as well as fruit. Some species are brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species, but the majority of species lift their very own young.

Cuckoos have performed a role in human tradition for 1000's of years, appearing in Greek mythology as sacred to the goddess Hera. In Europe, the cuckoo is associated with spring, and with cuckoldry, for instance in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost. In India, cuckoos are sacred to Kamadeva, the god of desire and longing, whereas in Japan, the cuckoo symbolises unrequited love.


The chestnut-breasted malkoha is standard of the Phaenicophaeinae in having brightly colored pores and skin across the eye.

Cuckoos are medium-sized birds that vary size-wise from the little bronze cuckoo, at 17 g and 15 cm (6 inches), to the channel-billed cuckoo, at 630 g (1.4 lbs) and 63 cm (25 inches).[4] There is in most cases little sexual dimorphism in size, however the place it exists, it may be both the male or the feminine this is greater. One of the most important distinguishing options of the family are the ft, which can be zygodactyl, that means that the 2 inner toes point ahead and the two outer backward. There are two fundamental frame bureaucracy, arboreal species (like the typical cuckoo) which might be slender and have quick tarsi, and terrestrial species (like the roadrunners) which can be more heavy set and feature long tarsi. Almost all species have lengthy tails which might be used for directing in terrestrial species and as a rudder throughout flight in the arboreal species. The wing form also varies with way of life, with the more migratory species just like the black-billed cuckoo possessing long slender wings able to stable direct flight, and the more terrestrial and sedentary cuckoos just like the coucals and malkohas having shorter rounded wings and a extra laboured gliding flight.[4]

The subfamily Cuculinae are the brood-parasitic cuckoos of the Old World.[4] They generally tend to conform to the vintage shape, with (generally) lengthy tails, quick legs, long slim wings and an arboreal lifestyle. The largest species, the channel-billed cuckoo, additionally has probably the most outsized invoice within the circle of relatives, comparable to that of a hornbill. The subfamily Phaenicophaeinae are the non-parasitic cuckoos of the Old World, and include the couas, malkohas, and ground-cuckoos. They are extra terrestrial cuckoos, with solid and incessantly lengthy legs and brief rounded wings. The subfamily in most cases has brighter plumage and brightly colored naked skin across the eye. The coucals are some other terrestrial Old World subfamily of long tailed long legged and brief winged cuckoos. They are large heavyset birds with the most important, the greater black coucal, being around the similar size as the channel-billed cuckoo. The subfamily Coccyzinae are arboreal and long tailed as smartly, with various massive insular bureaucracy. The New World ground cuckoos are very similar to the Asian ground-cuckoos in being lengthy legged and terrestrial, and contains the lengthy billed roadrunner, which is able to succeed in speeds of 30 km/h when chasing prey. The ultimate subfamily are the ordinary anis, which include the small clumsy anis and the larger guira cuckoo. The anis have large bills and easy shiny feathers.

Some species, just like the Asian emerald cuckoo (Chrysococcyx maculatus) exhibit iridescent plumage.

The feathers of the cuckoos are typically cushy, and regularly turn into waterlogged in heavy rain. Cuckoos regularly sun themselves after rain, and the anis hold their wings open within the approach of a vulture or cormorant whilst drying. There is really extensive variation within the plumage exhibited by the family. Some species, particularly the brood parasites have cryptic plumage, while others have vivid and elaborate plumage. This is especially true of the Chrysococcyx or shiny cuckoos, that have iridescent plumage. Some cuckoos have a resemblance to hawks within the genus Accipiter with barring on the underside; this it appears alarms potential hosts, permitting the feminine to get admission to a host nest.[5] The younger of a few brood parasites are colored so that you can resemble the young of the host. For example, the Asian koels breeding in India have black offspring to resemble their crow hosts, while in the Australian koels the chicks are brown like the honeyeater hosts. Sexual dimorphism in plumage is rare within the cuckoos, being maximum commonplace in the parasitic Old World species.

Cuckoo genera range in the choice of primary wing feathers as below.

Coccycua, Coccyzus, Phaenicophaeus, Piaya – 9 Cuculus – 9 or 10 Pachycoccyx, Clamator levaillantii, Centropus – 10 Microdynamis, Eudynamys, Clamator glandarius – 11 Some coucals – 12 Scythrops novaehollandiae – 13

Distribution and habitat

The great lizard cuckoo is a large insular cuckoo of the Caribbean

The cuckoos have a worldly distribution, ranging across all the world's continents apart from Antarctica. They are absent from the south west of South America, the a ways north and north west of North America, and the driest areas of the Middle East and North Africa (despite the fact that they occur there as passage migrants). They typically handiest happen as vagrants within the oceanic islands of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, however one species breeds on plenty of Pacific islands and some other is a wintry weather migrant throughout a lot of the Pacific.[6]

Cuculinae is the most fashionable subfamily of cuckoos, and is distributed throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and Oceania. Amongst the Phaenicophaeinae cuckoos the malkohas and Asian ground-cuckoos are limited to southern Asia, the couas are endemic to Madagascar and the yellowbill fashionable across Africa. The coucals are distributed from Africa through tropical Asia down into Australia and the Solomon Islands. The ultimate three subfamilies have a New World distribution, all three are present in each North and South America. The Coccyzinae reaches the furthest north of the three subfamilies, breeding in Canada, whereas the anis achieve as some distance north as Florida and the everyday ground-cuckoos the south west United States.

For the cuckoos appropriate habitat supplies a supply of food (principally insects and especially caterpillars) and a place to reproduce, for brood parasites the will is for suitable habitat for the host species. Cuckoos happen in a wide variety of habitats. The majority of species occur in forests and woodland, principally within the evergreen rainforests of the tropics. Some species inhabit or are even limited to mangrove forests; those come with the little bronze cuckoo of Australia, some malkohas, coucals, and the aptly-named mangrove cuckoo of the New World. In addition to forests some species of cuckoo occupy more open environments; this can come with even arid areas like deserts in the case of the greater roadrunner or the pallid cuckoo. Temperate migratory species like the common cuckoo inhabit a wide range of habitats with a purpose to make maximum use of the possible brood hosts, from reed beds (the place they parasitise reed warblers) to treeless moors (the place they parasitise meadow pipits).


Most species of cuckoo are sedentary, but some undertake common seasonal migrations and others undertake partial migrations over part of their vary.

Species breeding at upper latitudes migrate to warmer climates right through the wintry weather because of food availability. The long-tailed koel, which breeds in New Zealand, flies to its wintering grounds in Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia, a feat described as "perhaps the most remarkable overwater migration of any land bird."[7] The yellow-billed cuckoo and black-billed cuckoo breed in North America and fly around the Caribbean Sea, a continuous flight of 4000 km. Other long migration flights come with the lesser cuckoo, which flies from Africa to India, and the typical cuckoo of Europe, which flies continuous over the Mediterranean Sea and Sahara Desert at the voyage between Europe and central Africa.[8]

Within Africa, ten species make common intra-continental migrations which are described as polarised; that is, they spend the non-breeding season in the tropical centre of the continent and transfer north and south to breed in the more arid and open savannah and deserts.[9] This is the same as the location in the Neotropics, where no species have this migration pattern, or tropical Asia, where a unmarried species does. 83% of the Australian species are partial migrants inside of Australia or go back and forth to New Guinea and Indonesia after the breeding season.[10]

In some species the migration is diurnal, as in the channel-billed cuckoo, or nocturnal, as within the yellow-billed cuckoo.

Chestnut-winged cuckoo in Singapore.

Behaviour and ecology

The cuckoos are for the most phase solitary birds that seldom happen in pairs or groups. The biggest exception to this are the anis of the Americas, that have developed cooperative breeding and other social behaviours. For the most section the cuckoos are also diurnal as opposed to nocturnal, but many species call at evening (see below). The cuckoos also are in most cases a shy and retiring family, extra frequently heard than seen. The exception to this are again the anis, which can be steadily extraordinarily trusting against humans and other species.

Unlike maximum cuckoos, the Asian koel is mostly frugivorous.

Most cuckoos are insectivorous, and particularly are specialized in eating larger bugs and caterpillars, together with noxious hairy sorts have shyed away from through different birds. They are peculiar amongst birds in processing their prey prior to swallowing, rubbing it from side to side on onerous objects equivalent to branches and then crushing it with special bony plates in the back of the mouth.[11] They also take a wide range of other insects and animal prey. The lizard cuckoos of the Caribbean have, within the relative absence of birds of prey, specialized in taking lizards.[12] Larger, floor sorts such as coucals and roadrunners also feed variously on snakes, lizards, small rodents, and different birds, which they bludgeon with their strong bills. Ground species would possibly employ other techniques to catch prey. A study of two coua species in Madagascar discovered that the Coquerel's coua got prey by way of walking and gleaning on the wooded area floor, while the red-capped coua ran and pounced on prey. Both species also showed seasonal flexibility in prey and foraging tactics.[13] The parasitic cuckoos are generally now not recorded as participating in mixed-species feeding flocks, although some studies in eastern Australia found several species participated in the non-breeding season, but were mobbed and unable to do so within the breeding season.[14] Ground-cuckoos of the genus Neomorphus are on occasion seen feeding in association with army ant swarms, even though they are not obligate ant-followers as are some antbirds.[15] The anis are ground feeders that observe farm animals and different large mammals when foraging; in a similar way to farm animals egrets they clutch prey flushed by means of the cattle and enjoy higher foraging success charges in this approach.[16]

Several koels, couas, and the channel-billed cuckoo feed principally on fruit,[17] but they aren't solely frugivores. The parasitic koels and channel-billed cuckoo in particular eat principally fruit when raised through frugivore hosts such because the Australasian figbird and pied currawong. Other species occasionally take fruit as neatly. Couas consume fruit within the dry season when prey is harder to search out.[13]


The cuckoos are an extremely numerous group of birds relating to breeding techniques.[4] The majority of species are monogamous, however there are exceptions. The anis and the guira cuckoo lay their eggs in communal nests, which is built through all members of the gang. Incubation, brooding and territorial defence duties are shared by means of all participants of the crowd. Within these species the anis breed as teams of monogamous pairs, however the guira cuckoos aren't monogamous within the team, showing a polygynandrous breeding system. This crew nesting behaviour is not totally cooperative; women folk compete and may take away others' eggs when laying hers. Eggs are normally handiest ejected early within the breeding season in the anis, but will also be ejected at any time by means of guria cuckoos.[18]Polyandry has been showed in the African black coucal and is suspected to happen in the different coucals, in all probability explaining the reversed sexual dimorphism within the group.[19]

The majority of cuckoo species, together with malkohas, couas, coucals, and roadrunners and most different American cuckoos, construct their own nests, even supposing a large minority have interaction in brood parasitism (see below). Most of those species nest in trees or timber, but the coucals lay their eggs in nests on the floor or in low shrubs. Though on some events non-parasitic cuckoos parasitize different species, the parent still is helping feed the chick.

The nests of cuckoos range in the similar means because the breeding techniques. The nests of malkohas and Asian floor cuckoos are shallow platforms of twigs, however the ones of coucals are globular or domed nests of grasses. The New World cuckoos construct saucers or bowls with regards to the New World floor cuckoos.[4]

Non-parasitic cuckoos, like most different non-passerines, lay white eggs, however lots of the parasitic species lay colored eggs to compare the ones of their passerine hosts.

The young of all species are altricial. Non-parasitic cuckoos depart the nest sooner than they can fly, and a few New World species have the shortest incubation classes amongst birds.[20]

Brood parasitism Main article: Brood parasite Reed warbler raising the young of a not unusual cuckoo ">Play media A pallid cuckoo juvenile being fed via 3 separate foster-parent species

About 56 of the Old World species and three of the New World species (pheasant, pavonine, and striped) are brood parasites, laying their eggs within the nests of other birds.[20] These species are obligate brood parasites, that means that they just reproduce on this model. The best-known instance is the European common cuckoo. In addition to the above noted species, others from time to time have interaction in non-obligate brood parasitism, laying their eggs within the nests of contributors of their very own species in addition to raising their own younger. The shells of the eggs of brood-parasitic cuckoos are normally thicker and more potent than those of their hosts.[21] This protects the egg if a host father or mother tries to wreck it, and may make it immune to cracking when dropped into a number nest.[22] Cuckoo eggshells have two distinct layers. In some nesting cuckoos, there is a thick outer chalky layer that isn't provide on the eggs of maximum brood-parasitic species, even if there are some exceptions and the eggshells of Old World parasitic cuckoos have a thick outer layer this is other from that of nesting cuckoos.[23]

The cuckoo egg hatches previous than the host eggs, and the cuckoo chick grows faster; in most cases the chick evicts the eggs and/or younger of the host species. The chick has no time to learn this habits, so it must be an instinct passed on genetically.

One reason why for the cuckoo egg's hatching sooner is that, after the egg is totally shaped, the feminine cuckoo holds it in her oviduct for another 24 hours prior to laying.[22] This implies that the egg has already had 24 hours of inside incubation. Furthermore, the cuckoo's interior temperature is 3-Four degrees Celsius upper than the temperature at which the egg is incubated within the nest, and the upper temperature implies that the egg incubates sooner, so at the time it's laid the egg has already had the an identical of 30 hours incubation in a nest.[22]

The chick encourages the host to keep pace with its high expansion charge with its rapid begging name[24] and the chick's open mouth which serves as a sign stimulus.[25]

Since obligate brood parasites want to effectively trick their host to ensure that them to breed, they have advanced adaptations at several levels of breeding. However, there are top prices of parasitism at the host, resulting in solid choices on host to acknowledge and reject parasitic eggs. The diversifications and counter-adaptations between host and parasites have resulted in a coevolution fingers race. This means that if one of the crucial species concerned were to stop adapting, it could lose the race to the other species, leading to reduced health of the losing species.[26] The egg-stage adaptation is the most productive studied stage of this arms race.

Cuckoos have various strategies for getting their eggs into host nests. Different species use different strategies based on host defensive methods. Female cuckoos have secretive and fast laying behaviors, however in some circumstances, males have been shown to entice host adults away from their nests so that the feminine can lay her egg within the nest.[27] Some host species may at once try to save you cuckoos laying eggs in their nest within the first position – birds whose nests are at prime possibility of cuckoo-contamination are known to 'mob' cuckoos to force them out of the realm.[28] Parasitic cuckoos are grouped into gentes, with each gens focusing on a selected host. There is some proof that the gentes are genetically different from one some other.

The call (lend a hand·data) of the comb cuckoo

Female parasitic cuckoos now and again specialize and lay eggs that intently resemble the eggs in their selected host. Some birds are ready to differentiate cuckoo eggs from their very own, leading to those eggs least like the host's being thrown out of the nest.[25] Parasitic cuckoos that display the highest levels of egg mimicry are the ones whose hosts exhibit top ranges of egg rejection behavior.[29] Some hosts do not exhibit egg rejection habits and the cuckoo eggs glance very dissimilar from the host eggs. It has also been proven in a find out about of the European not unusual cuckoos that women folk will lay their egg in the nest of a host that has eggs that look similar to its own.[30] Other species of cuckoo lay "cryptic" eggs, that are darkish in color when their hosts' eggs are gentle.[27] This is a trick to cover the egg from the host, and is exhibited in cuckoos that parasitize hosts with darkish, domed nests. Some adult parasitic cuckoos completely smash the host's grasp if they reject the cuckoo egg.[27] In this situation, raising the cuckoo chick is less of a price than the opposite, overall grab destruction.

There are two main hypotheses on the cognitive mechanisms that mediate host distinguishing of eggs. One speculation is right popularity, which states that a host compares eggs present in its grasp to an interior template (learnt or innate), to spot if parasitic eggs are present.[31] However, memorizing a template of a parasitic egg is expensive and imperfect and most probably now not identical to each and every host's egg. The other one is the discordancy speculation, which states that host compares eggs within the grasp and identifies the abnormal ones.[31] However, if parasitic eggs made the vast majority of eggs in the snatch, then hosts will finally end up rejecting their own eggs. More fresh research have found that it is much more likely that both mechanisms contribute to host discrimination of parasitic eggs since one compensates for the limitations of the other.[32]

The parasitism isn't essentially totally detrimental to the host species. A 16-year dataset was once utilized in 2014 to search out that carrion crow nests in a region of Northern Spain had been extra successful overall (more likely to provide at least one crow fledgling) when parasitised through the great noticed cuckoo. The researchers attributed this to a strong-smelling predator-repelling substance secreted via cuckoo chicks when attacked, and noted that the interactions weren't essentially simply parasitic or mutualistic.[33][34] This relationship was once not observed for some other host species, or for another species of cuckoo. Great spotted cuckoo chicks do not evict host eggs or younger, and are smaller and weaker than carrion crow chicks, so both of these factors will have contributed to the effect observed.

However, next research using a dataset from southern Spain [35] failed to duplicate these findings, and the second one research workforce also criticised the technique used in experiments described within the first paper. The authors of the first study have spoke back to points made in the second one [36] and each teams agree that further analysis is needed sooner than the mutualistic impact can also be regarded as proven.


Cuckoos are ceaselessly highly secretive and in many circumstances preferrred identified for their wide repertoire of calls. Calls are most often quite easy, similar to whistles, flutes, or hiccups.[37] The calls are used with a purpose to demonstrate possession of a territory and to draw a mate. Within a species the calls are remarkably constant across the vary, even in species with very massive ranges. This suggests, along with the truth that many species aren't raised via their true parents, that the calls of cuckoos are innate and no longer learnt. Although cuckoos are diurnal, many species call at night.[20]

The cuckoo circle of relatives will get its English and scientific names from the call of the male common cuckoo, which may be acquainted from cuckoo clocks. Some of the names of alternative species and genera are also derived from their calls, as an example the koels of Asia and Australasia. In maximum cuckoos the calls are unique to explicit species, and are helpful for identity. Several cryptic species are ultimate identified on the basis of their calls.

Phylogeny and evolution

The circle of relatives Cuculidae was introduced by means of the English zoologist William Elford Leach in a guide to the contents of the British Museum published in 1820.[38][39]

There is very little fossil file of cuckoos and their evolutionary history remains unclear. Dynamopterus was once an Oligocene genus of enormous cuckoo,[40] regardless that it'll had been related to cariamas as an alternative.[41]

A 2014 genome analysis by way of Jarvis et al. discovered a clade of birds that contains the orders Cuculiformes (cuckoos), Musophagiformes (turacos), and Otidiformes (bustards). This has been named the Otidimorphae.[3] Relationships between the orders is unclear.

Living Cuculiformes from Sorenson & Payne (2005):[42]

Cuculiformes classification     Crotophaginae  




    Neomorphinae Taperini  










            Centropodinae Centropodini






      Cuculinae Rhinorthini













































Taxonomy and systematics

Blue coua (Coua caerulea) Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) Rufous-vented ground cuckoo (Neomorphus geoffroyi) White-browed coucal (Centropus superciliosus)

For the residing contributors of each genus, see the item List of cuckoo species.

Basal or incertae sedis Genus Dynamopterus (fossil: Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of Caylus, Tarn-et-Garonne, France) Genus Cursoricoccyx (fossil: Early Miocene of Logan County, USA) – Neomorphinae? Cuculidae gen. et sp. indet. (fossil: Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)[43] Genus Nannococcyx – Saint Helena cuckoo (extinct) Subfamily Cuculinae – Brood-parasitic cuckoos Genus Eocuculus (fossil: Late Eocene of Teller County, USA)[44] Genus Clamator (Four species) Genus Pachycoccyx – thick-billed cuckoo Genus Cuculus – typical cuckoos (11 species) Genus Hierococcyx – hawk-cuckoos (8 species) Genus Cercococcyx – long-tailed cuckoos (Three species) Genus Cacomantis (10 species) Genus Chrysococcyx – bronze cuckoos (Thirteen species) Genus Surniculus – drongo-cuckoos (4 species) Genus Microdynamis – dwarf koel Genus Eudynamys – standard koels (4 species, one prehistoric)[45] Genus Urodynamis – Pacific long-tailed cuckoo Genus Scythrops – channel-billed cuckoo Subfamily Phaenicophaeinae – malkohas and couas Genus Ceuthmochares – yellowbills (2 species) Genus Rhinortha – Raffles's malkoha (occasionally in Phaenicophaeus; tentatively placed right here) Genus Zanclostomus – Red-billed malkoha Genus Phaenicophaeus – typical malkohas (9 species) Genus Taccocua – Sirkeer malkoha Genus Carpococcyx – Asian ground-cuckoos (Three species) Genus Coua – couas (9 residing species, 1 recently extinct) Subfamily Coccyzinae[46] – American cuckoos Genus Coccyzus – comprises Saurothera and Hyetornis (Thirteen species) Genus Coccycua – previously in Coccyzus and Piaya, includes Micrococcyx (Three species) Genus Piaya (2 species) Subfamily Neomorphinae – New World ground cuckoos Genus Neococcyx (fossil: Early Oligocene of Central North America) Genus Tapera – striped cuckoo Genus Dromococcyx (2 species) Genus Morococcyx – lesser ground cuckoo Genus Geococcyx – roadrunners (2 species) Genus Neomorphus – Neotropical ground-cuckoos (Five species) Subfamily Centropodinae – coucals Genus Centropus (some 30 species) Subfamily Crotophaginae – Anis Genus Crotophaga – true anis (Three species) Genus Guira – guira cuckoo

In human tradition

In Greek mythology, the god Zeus reworked himself right into a cuckoo in order that he may seduce the goddess Hera; the bird was once sacred to her.[47] In England, William Shakespeare alludes to the common cuckoo's association with spring, and with cuckoldry, within the courtly springtime tune in his play Love's Labours Lost.[48][49] In India, cuckoos are sacred to Kamadeva, the god of want and longing, whereas in Japan, the cuckoo symbolises unrequited love.[50] Cuckoos are a sacred animal to the Bon faith of Tibet.[51]

The orchestral composition "On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring" by way of Frederick Delius imitates sounds of the cuckoo.[52]

The higher roadrunner is the state bird of america state of New Mexico and is a not unusual symbol of the American Southwest normally. "Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner" used to be a protracted operating series of cartoons by way of Warner Brothers Studios that has had enduring recognition from the time the characters were created in 1949 throughout the present and helps outline the picture of the bird in pop culture.


^ .mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-free abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,clear),url("//")correct 0.1em center/9px .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(clear,clear),url("//")appropriate 0.1em center/9px .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:linear-gradient(clear,clear),url("//")right 0.1em heart/9px .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:lend a .cs1-ws-icon abackground:linear-gradient(clear,clear),url("//")right 0.1em heart/12px code.cs1-codecolour:inherit;background:inherit;border:none; .cs1-hidden-errorshow:none; .cs1-maintdisplay:none;colour:#33aa33; .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritEricson, P.G.P.; et al. 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Other sources

Feduccia, Alan (1996): The Origin and Evolution of Birds. Yale University Press, New Haven. ISBN 0-300-06460-8 Olson, Storrs L. (1985), "Section VII.C. Cuculidae", in Farner, D.S.; King, J.R.; Parkes, Kenneth C. (eds.), Avian Biology, 8, New York: Academic Press

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