The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is

Section IV—Laboratory Biosafety Level Criteria. We hope you to find the sixth version of Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories entire, timely, and most of all, simple to make use of. Table 5. Laboratories working with the viruses at BSL-3 listed here are really helpful to HEPA filter the exhaust air.The Biosafety Level 2 Laboratory. Biological Safety Level 3 Laboratories. The most essential element in keeping up a safe paintings atmosphere is strict adherence to good microbiological Signage for BSL-2 or higher labs must include the following data: • Biosafety level • Supervisor's or......introductory microbiology laboratories is Section: 6.3Bloom's Taxonomy: KnowledgeASMcue Outcome: 8.6Learning Outcome: 6.10 10) The biosafety level (BSL) for a clinical microbiology laboratory operating with doubtlessly airborne pathogens, such as tuberculosis micro organism, is...The e-newsletter Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories1 is a essential reference and the resource Standard microbiology practices are typically enough to give protection to laboratory employees and different staff in the construction. Access to the lab is more managed than for BSL 1 facilities.1989. Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent Practices for Handling and Disposal of Infectious Materials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press Because it is UNCORRECTED subject material, please consider the following textual content as a useful however inadequate proxy for the authoritative guide pages.

PDF MSU Biosafety Manual | The Biosafety Level 2 Laboratory

EHS Biosafety for the respective campus is available to lend a hand the Principal Investigator must Most microbiological work at Indiana University is performed at BSL-1 or BSL-2 containment. BSL-1 laboratories don't seem to be necessarily separated from the common site visitors patterns in the development.Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2): Conducts research on indigenous agents which might be found in the community and associated with human disease posing a For further details about BSL requirements, please see the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories information by means of the U.S...Microbiology for Beginners. Biosafety level 2 (BSL2) pointers for instructing laboratories. Biosafety level designations are in line with a composite of the design features, development, containment amenities, equipment, practices and operational procedures required for operating with...Several BSL-3 [=prime containment] laboratories are in the planning or execution segment, to tackle biosafety problems curious about dealing with highly infectious illness brokers required for elementary research and analysis. In most of the developing countries, the awareness about biocontainment has increased...

PDF MSU Biosafety Manual | The Biosafety Level 2 Laboratory

The biosafety level BSL for most introductory microbiology...

Biosafety levels Biosafety levels are technique of conserving the damaging biological agents underneath control. It contains the precautions required to isolate BSL-1 laboratories will have to have a door which will also be locked to restrict get entry to to the lab; however it is not necessary for BSL-1 labs to be remoted from the...BSL-2. This biosafety level covers laboratories that work with brokers associated with human diseases (i.e. pathogenic or infections organisms) Access to a BSL-2 lab is way more restrictive than a BSL-1 lab. Outside staff, or the ones with an greater chance of contamination, are steadily limited...A biosafety level is a level of the biocontainment precautions required to isolate unhealthy biological brokers in an enclosed laboratory facility. The levels of containment range from the lowest biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) to the very best at level 4 (BSL-4).For more detailed information, seek the advice of the most present version of "Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories." BSL-1 facilities and practices are appropriate for work involving well-characterized agents now not identified to persistently cause disease in immunocompetent grownup people...The descriptions of biosafety ranges (BSL) 1 - 4 parallel the ones in the NIH Guidelines for analysis involving recombinant DNA. The BSL classes are divided up by chance of disease combined with availability of preventive and therapeutic treatments. The table underneath incorporates an inventory of agents and...

Biosafety level

Jump to navigation Jump to look Essential features of a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratory[1]

A biosafety level (BSL), or pathogen/coverage level, is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate unhealthy biological brokers in an enclosed laboratory facility. The levels of containment vary from the lowest biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) to the best possible at level 4 (BSL-4). In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have specified these ranges.[2] In the European Union, the same biosafety levels are defined in a directive.[3] In Canada the 4 levels are referred to as Containment Levels.[4] Facilities with those designations also are occasionally given as P1 via P4 (for pathogen or protection level), as in the term P3 laboratory.[5]

At the lowest level of biosafety, precautions would possibly consist of normal hand-washing and minimum protective apparatus. At upper biosafety ranges, precautions would possibly include airflow programs, a couple of containment rooms, sealed boxes, effective stress group of workers fits, established protocols for all procedures, extensive staff training, and high levels of security to regulate get admission to to the facility. Health Canada reports that world-wide till 1999 there were recorded over 5,000 circumstances of unintentional laboratory infections and A hundred ninety deaths.[6]

History

The first prototype Class III (most containment) biosafety cabinet was shaped in 1943 via Hubert Kaempf Jr., then a U.S. Army soldier, under the course of Arnold G. Wedum, Director (1944–69) of Industrial Health and Safety at the United States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories, Camp Detrick, Maryland. Kaempf was uninterested in his MP duties at Detrick and used to be able to transfer to the sheet steel division operating with the contractor, the H.Ok. Ferguson Co.[7]

On 18 April 1955, fourteen representatives met at Camp Detrick in Frederick, Maryland. The meeting was once to proportion wisdom and experiences relating to biosafety, chemical, radiological, and commercial issues of safety that had been commonplace to the operations at the 3 predominant biological battle (BW) laboratories of the U.S. Army.[8] Because of the doable implication of the paintings conducted at biological war laboratories, the meetings had been limited to most sensible level security clearances. Beginning in 1957, these meetings were planned to incorporate non-classified classes as well as classified classes to enable broader sharing of biological protection data. It was once no longer until 1964, then again, that conferences had been held in a central authority set up now not related to a organic struggle program.[9]

Over the next ten years, the organic protection meetings grew to include representatives from all federal businesses that backed or conducted research with pathogenic microorganisms. By 1966, it began to incorporate representatives from universities, personal laboratories, hospitals, and industrial complexes. Throughout the 1970s, participation in the meetings continued to enlarge and via 1983 discussions began regarding the introduction of a proper organization.[9] The American Biological Safety Association (ABSA) was officially established in 1984 and a charter and bylaws were drafted the similar year. As of 2008, ABSA comprises some 1,600 participants in its skilled association.[9]

In 1977 Jim Peacock of the Australian Academy of Science requested Bill Snowdon, then Chief CSIRO AAHL if he may have the newly released USA NIH and the British an identical necessities for the building of infrastructure for bio-containment reviewed via AAHL body of workers in an effort to recommending the adoption of one in every of them by Australian government. The evaluation was once carried out through CSIRO AAHL Project Manager Bill Curnow and CSIRO Engineer Arthur Jenkins. They drafted outcomes for every of the ranges of safety. AAHL was once notionally categorised as "substantially beyond P4". These had been followed by way of the Australian Academy of Science and become the basis for Australian Legislation. It opened in 1985 costing 5 million, constructed on Corio Oval.[10] The Australian Animal Health Laboratory is a Class 4/ P4 Laboratory.

Levels

Biosafety level 1

Biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) is suitable for paintings with well-characterized brokers which do not cause illness in healthy humans. In basic, those agents must pose minimal potential hazard to laboratory staff and the environment.[11] At this level, precautions are limited relative to different ranges. Laboratory workforce should wash their hands upon entering and exiting the lab. Research with these brokers is also carried out on usual open laboratory benches without the use of special containment apparatus. However, eating and consuming are most often prohibited in laboratory spaces.[11] Potentially infectious subject matter will have to be decontaminated before disposal, either by way of including a chemical reminiscent of bleach or isopropanol or through packaging for decontamination elsewhere.[11] Personal protective apparatus is most effective required for circumstances the place workforce might be exposed to hazardous subject matter.[11] BSL-1 laboratories should have a door which can also be locked to restrict get entry to to the lab. However, it is not necessary for BSL-1 labs to be isolated from the basic development.[12]

This level of biosafety is appropriate for work with a number of types of microorganisms together with non-pathogenic traces of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and different organisms now not suspected to contribute to human disease.[13] Due to the relative ease and protection of maintaining a BSL-1 laboratory, those are the sorts of laboratories most often used as instructing spaces for top schools and colleges.[12]

Biosafety level 2

At this level, all precautions used at Biosafety Level 1 are followed, and some additional precautions are taken. BSL-2 differs from BSL-1 in that:

Laboratory staff have particular training in handling pathogenic agents and are directed by means of scientists with complex training. Access to the laboratory is restricted when work is being carried out. Extreme precautions are occupied with contaminated sharp pieces. Certain procedures in which infectious aerosols or splashes is also created are performed in biological safety cupboards or different bodily containment equipment.[11]

Biosafety level 2 is appropriate for paintings involving brokers of moderate possible hazard to staff and the atmosphere.[12] This includes various microbes that reason mild illness to people, or are difficult to contract via aerosol in a lab environment.[14] Examples include Hepatitis A, B, and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Plasmodium falciparum, and Toxoplasma gondii.[14][15]

Biosafety level 3 Researcher at US Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, working with influenza virus below biosafety level Three prerequisites, with respirator inside a biosafety cabinet (BSC).

Biosafety level 3 is appropriate for work involving microbes which will motive serious and potentially lethal illness by means of the inhalation direction.[11] This type of paintings may also be finished in clinical, diagnostic, teaching, analysis, or manufacturing amenities.[12] Here, the precautions undertaken in BSL-1 and BSL-2 labs are adopted, as well as further measures including:

All laboratory personnel are supplied medical surveillance and introduced related immunizations (where available) to scale back the possibility of an accidental or disregarded infection.[11] All procedures involving infectious subject material must be performed inside of a organic safety cabinet.[11] Laboratory body of workers will have to put on solid-front protecting clothing (i.e. robes that tie in the again). This can't be worn out of doors of the laboratory and will have to be discarded or decontaminated after each use.[11] A laboratory-specific biosafety guide will have to be drafted which main points how the laboratory will perform in compliance with all protection requirements.[11]

In addition, the facility which properties the BSL-Three laboratory will have to have positive features to verify appropriate containment. The front to the laboratory must be separated from areas of the construction with unrestricted site visitors flow.[11] Additionally, the laboratory should be behind two units of self-closing doors (to cut back the risk of aerosols escaping).[12] The development of the laboratory is such that it can be simply cleaned. Carpets aren't permitted, and any seams in the floors, partitions, and ceilings are sealed to allow for easy cleaning and decontamination.[11] Additionally, windows will have to be sealed, and a ventilation system installed which forces air to waft from the "clean" spaces of the lab to the spaces where infectious agents are treated.[11] Air from the laboratory must be filtered sooner than it may be recirculated.[11]

A 2015 find out about via USA Today journalists recognized more than Two hundred lab sites that were accepted biosafety level 3.[16] The Proceedings of a Workshop on "Developing Norms for the Provision of Biological Laboratories in Low-Resource Contexts" provides a listing of BSL3 laboratories in the ones international locations.[17]

Biosafety level 3 is regularly used for analysis and diagnostic paintings involving various microbes which will also be transmitted by aerosols and/or purpose severe illness. These include Francisella tularensis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia psittaci, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, Coxiella burnetii, Rift Valley fever virus, Rickettsia rickettsii, several species of Brucella, chikungunya, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Yersinia pestis,[15] and SARS-CoV-2.[18]

Biosafety level 4 See additionally: List of biosafety level 4 organisms CDC technician dons an older-model positive-pressure suit sooner than entering considered one of the CDC's earlier BSL-Four labs.

Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) is the best possible level of biosafety precautions, and is appropriate for work with agents that could simply be aerosol-transmitted within the laboratory and motive severe to deadly disease in humans for which there aren't any available vaccines or remedies. BSL-4 laboratories are normally set up to be either cabinet laboratories or protective-suit laboratories. In cabinet laboratories, all work will have to be achieved inside of a class III biosafety cupboard. Materials leaving the cabinet will have to be decontaminated by means of passing via an autoclave or a tank of disinfectant. The cupboards themselves are required to have seamless edges to allow for easy cleansing. Additionally the cupboard and all materials inside of will have to be freed from sharp edges as a way to cut back the possibility of wear to the gloves. In a protective-suit laboratory, all paintings must be carried out in a category II biosafety cupboard through staff dressed in a positive strain suit. In order to go out the BSL-4 laboratory, staff should pass through a chemical bathe for decontamination, then a room for taking away the positive-pressure swimsuit, adopted by a non-public bathe. Entry into the BSL-4 laboratory is restricted to trained and licensed folks, and all persons entering and exiting the laboratory should be recorded.[11]

As with BSL-3 laboratories, BSL-4 laboratories will have to be separated from spaces that obtain unrestricted site visitors. Additionally airflow is tightly controlled to make sure that air always flows from "clean" areas of the lab to areas the place paintings with infectious brokers is being performed. The entrance to the BSL-4 lab must additionally make use of airlocks to minimize the risk that aerosols from the lab may well be got rid of from the lab. All laboratory waste, together with filtered air, water, and trash should even be decontaminated before it may go away the facility.[11]

Biosafety level 4 laboratories are used for diagnostic work and analysis on easily transmitted pathogens which is able to purpose deadly illness. These come with quite a few viruses known to motive viral hemorrhagic fever such as Marburg virus, Ebola virus, Lassa virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Other pathogens treated at BSL-4 come with Hendra virus, Nipah virus, and some flaviviruses. Additionally, poorly characterized pathogens which appear intently related to dangerous pathogens are incessantly treated at this level till sufficient knowledge are received both to verify persisted paintings at this level, or to permit working with them at a decrease level.[15] This level is extensively utilized for paintings with Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, despite the fact that this paintings is best carried out at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, United States, and the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology in Koltsovo, Russia.[19]

Regular inspection of positive-pressure suits to find any leaks[20]

SPECT device at BSL-4 imaging facility that separates topics with pathogens from the machines.[1]

The round containment tube separates the affected person table in the "hot" zone (pathogen provide) from the "cold" zone round this MRI gadget.

Air strain resistant (APR) door to split the hot and cold zones

Working inside of a BSL-4 lab with air hoses providing wonderful air strain.

Inside a Class III biological protection cabinet with an aerosol regulate platform

Effluent decontamination machine of a BSL-4 lab of NIAID

BSL-4 facilities for extraterrestrial samples Main article: Extraterrestrial sample curation

Sample-return missions that deliver again to Earth samples acquired from a Category V body should be curated at facilities rated BSL-4. Because the present BSL-4 amenities in the global should not have the advanced requirements to verify the preservation and coverage of Earth and the pattern concurrently,[21] there are currently no less than two proposals to build a BSL-4 facility dedicated to curation of limited (potentially biohazardous) extraterrestrial fabrics.

The first is the European Sample Curation Facility (ESCF),[22][23] proposed to be built in Vienna, which would curate non-restricted samples as well as perform BSL-4 processing of restricted material obtained from Category V our bodies equivalent to Mars, Europa, and Enceladus.[22] The different proposal is by NASA and is tentatively referred to as the Mars Sample-Return Receiving facility (MSRRF).[24] At least three other designs have been submitted in 2009.[21] If funded, this American facility could be expected to take 7 to 10 years from design to of completion,[25][26] and an additional two years is really useful for the personnel to grow to be talented and conversant in the amenities.[25] NASA is also assessing a 2017 proposal to construct a mobile and modular BSL-4 facility to secure a sample go back tablet at the landing site to habits preliminary biohazard analyses.[27] After final touch of biohazard trying out, choices might be made to sterilize the sample or transport all or portions to an enduring quarantine storage facility any place in the global.[27]

The programs of such facilities must have the ability to comprise unknown biohazards, as the sizes of any putative alien microorganisms are unknown. Ideally, it will have to filter out debris down to 10 nanometers, and unencumber of a particle 50 nanometers or better is unacceptable below any circumstance.[28]

List of BSL-4 facilities

This record is incomplete; you'll lend a hand through adding lacking pieces with reliable resources.

According to a U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) report revealed on 4 October 2007, a total of 1,356 CDC/USDA registered BSL-Three amenities had been identified all through the United States.[29] Approximately 36% of those laboratories are located in academia. 15 BSL-Four amenities were identified in the U.S. in 2007, including 9 at federal labs.[29]

The following is an inventory of existing BSL-4 facilities worldwide.

Country Location Name Dateestablished Description Argentina Buenos Aires National Service of Healthcare and Agriculture Quality (SENASA) Diagnostic laboratory for foot-and-mouth illness.[30]Australia Geelong, Victoria Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness 1985 Capable of housing from huge experimental animals to bugs underneath prerequisites that exceed all BSL Four necessities. The antecedent of all such amenities developed since the Nineteen Eighties. Arguably the most researched design and construction undertaking ever. AAHL is subdivided into quite a few isolation zones that may be controlled at differing containment ranges similtaneously. CSIRO AAHL Project Manager and Architect, William Curnow, equipped technical evaluations to Canadian, Indian, UK and French Authorities and consulted with Dr Jerry Callis [PIADC] to UN FAO on issues of bio-containment. Formerly referred to as the Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL) and renamed to Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness April 2020 Melbourne, Victoria University of Melbourne – Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity 2014 Diagnostic reference lab.[31][32]National High Security Laboratory Operates underneath the auspice of the Victoria Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory.[33]Brazil Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minas Gerais (Lanagro/MG) 2014 Focus on Agropecuary illnesses and diagnostics.[34]Canada Winnipeg, Manitoba National Microbiology Laboratory 1999[35] Located at the Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health, it is jointly operated by means of the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.[36]China Wuhan, Hubei Wuhan Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences 2015 Wuhan Institute of Virology has existed since 1956 and already hosted BSL3 laboratories. A BSL4 facility was completed in 2015, and changed into the first BSL-4 laboratory in China.[37]Harbin, Heilongjiang Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences 2018 Harbin Veterinary Research Institute researches prevention and control of main infectious illnesses. China's second, and the first for massive animals, BSL-4 lab.[38]Czech Republic Těchonín, Pardubice Region Biological Defense Center 1971, rebuilt 2003–2007 Hospital and analysis facility. Located at the Centrum biologické ochrany (Biological Defense Center). Operated by way of Army of the Czech Republic.[39]France Brétigny-sur-Orge, Essonne French Armed Biomedical Research Institute, French Defence Health Service French Army laboratory.[40]Lyon, Metropolis of Lyon Jean Mérieux BSL-4 Laboratory 1999 Built and owned by way of the Fondation Mérieux. Since 2004, operated by INSERM.[41]Vert-le-Petit, Essonne Laboratoire de la DGA 2013 Operated by way of the Ministry of Defense.[42]Gabon Franceville, Haut-Ogooué Province Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville This facility is operated via a analysis group supported via each Gabonese (principally) and French governments, and is West Africa's most effective P4 lab (BSL-4).[43]Germany Berlin Robert Koch Institute 2015 Diagnostic and experimental lab facility.[44]Hamburg Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine 2014 Part of the Leibniz Center Infection. National reference lab for tropical viruses.[45]Isle of Riems, Greifswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Friedrich Loeffler Institute 2010 Focus on animal viral sicknesses and diagnostics.[46]Marburg, Hesse Philipps University of Marburg 2008 Focuses on hemorrhagic fever viruses.[47]Hungary Budapest National Center for Epidemiology 1998 Division of Virology operates three WHO National Reference Laboratories. The BSL-4 biosafety laboratory supplies a contemporary method to procedure bad imported zoonotic viral pathogens.[48]Pécs University of Pécs 2016 Opened in 2016, a part of "Szentágothai János Kutatóközpont". India Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh High Security Animal Disease Laboratory (HSADL) 1998 This facility offers especially to zoonotic organisms and emerging infectious illness threats.[49]Hyderabad, Telangana Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology 2009 National BSL-4 Containment Facility for Human Infectious Diseases.[50]Pune, Maharashtra National Institute of Virology 2012 India's most advanced BSL-Four category lab.[51]Italy Rome, Lazio Istituto Nazionale in line with le Malattie Infettive 1997 The "National Institute of Infectious Diseases" used to operate inside the Lazzaro Spallanzani medical institution; the facility is now impartial and is house to five BSL-3 labs in addition to a unmarried BSL-Four laboratory, which was once finished in 1997.[52]Milano, Lombardia Ospedale Luigi Sacco 2006 Japan Musashimurayama, Tokyo National Institute for Infectious Diseases 2015 Located at National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Department of Virology I. Built in 1981; operated at BSL-Three until 2015 because of opposition from close by citizens.[53]Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) 1984 Facility finished in 1984 but no longer operated as BSL-Four because of local opposition.[54]Russia Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology (VECTOR) One of two WHO-approved amenities for paintings on variola virus.[19]Singapore Singapore DSO National Laboratories End-2025 (anticipated) First BSL-4 Lab in Singapore when completed.[55]South Africa Johannesburg, Gauteng National Institute for Communicable Diseases 2002 [56]South Korea Cheongju, North Chungcheong Province Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2017 First BSL-4 Lab in South Korea. Sweden Solna, Stockholm County Public Health Agency of Sweden 2001 The most effective BSL-Four facility in the Nordic area. Constructed for research and diagnostics of hemorrhagic fever viruses.[57]Switzerland Geneva, Canton of Geneva University Hospital of Geneva "Glove box" type laboratory; essentially for handling clinical samples.[58]Spiez, Canton of Bern Spiez Laboratory 2013 Run by way of Federal Office for Civil Protection and the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports.[59]Mittelhäusern, Canton of Bern The Institute of Virology and Immunology IVI[60] Part of the Food Safety and Veterinary Office (FSVO).[61] Primary function is diagnostics of extremely pathogenic viruses.[59]Taiwan National Defense University Institute of Preventive Medicine 1983 [62]United Kingdom Camden, Greater London Francis Crick Institute 2015 Has BSL-Four house but does not paintings on human pathogens.[63]Colindale, Greater London Public Health England's Centre for Infections Department of Health laboratory. Diagnostics for various viral diseases.[64] Part of the European Network of Biosafety-Level-4 Laboratories.[65]Mill Hill, Greater London National Institute for Medical Research Medical Research Council laboratory. Research and diagnostics for highly pathogenic viruses. Closed in 2017 and paintings moved to the Francis Crick Institute. Site demolished in 2018. [64]Potters Bar, Hertfordshire National Institute for Biological Standards and Control Department of Health and Home Office laboratory. Develop assays and reagents for research on virulent pathogens.[64]Addlestone, Surrey Animal and Plant Health Agency Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs laboratory. Diagnostics and research for animal sicknesses.[64]Pirbright, Surrey Institute for Animal Health Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council laboratory. Research on extremely pathogenic animal illnesses.[64]Merial Animal Health Private lab. Produces vaccines in opposition to foot and mouth illness and bluetongue illness.[64]Porton Down, Wiltshire Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response Department of Health laboratory. Diagnostics and research for haemorrhagic fever viruses.[64] Part of the European Network of Biosafety-Level-4 Laboratories.[65]Defence Science and Technology Laboratory Ministry of Defence laboratory. Focuses on protection from biological weapons.[64]United States Fort Collins, Colorado Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Diseases A BSL 3/Four facility that operates in connection with some of Colorado State University's biomedical analysis programs. The location makes a speciality of arboviral and bacterial illnesses.[66]Atlanta, Georgia Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Currently operates in two buildings. One of two facilities in the international that officially grasp smallpox.[19]Georgia State University 1997 Research focal point on B virus.[67]Manhattan, Kansas National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF), Kansas State University 2022 (expected) Under construction. Facility to be operated by way of the Department of Homeland Security, and exchange the Plum Island Animal Disease Center. Expected to be operational via 2022–2023.[68]Bethesda, Maryland National Institutes of Health (NIH) Located on the NIH Campus, it currently only operates with BSL-Three agents.[69]Fort Detrick, Maryland Integrated Research Facility Operated by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Focuses on animal fashions of human sicknesses.[70]National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center Operated by means of the Department of Homeland Security. Focus on doable bioterrorism threats.[71]US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) 1969 Run by means of the U.S. Army. Research specializes in biological threats to the U.S. army.[72][73]Boston, Massachusetts National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory (NEIDL), Boston University Built 2008, Opened 2012,[74] BSL-4 Approval in 2017 [75] Focus on attainable threats to public well being.[76]Hamilton, Montana Rocky Mountain Laboratories Integrated Research Facility 2008 NIAID laboratory. Focus on vector-borne diseases.[77]Galveston, Texas Galveston National Laboratory, National Biocontainment Facility Opened in 2008, facility is operated by the University of Texas Medical Branch.[78]Shope Laboratory 2004 Operated via the University of Texas Medical Branch.[79]San Antonio, Texas Texas Biomedical Research Institute 1999 The handiest privately owned BSL-4 lab in the US.[80]

Safety considerations

In a December 2014 speech Harvey Fineberg pointed out that "Another very important insight that was developed at the Hanover meeting was the fact that when we talk about laboratory safety the traditional classifications of biohazard of BSL-2, -3, and -4 are not sufficiently informative or specific to give us the assurance that we would like about the security of any laboratory. A label like BSL-3 covers a wide variety of laboratory procedures and practices. We need to think about biosafety in terms of whole systems of construction, of operation, training, protocols, measuring and monitoring that create a degree of safety in the functioning of laboratories for a particular purpose."[81]

A North Carolina Mosquito & Vector Control Association (NCMVCA) find out about highlighted safety issues. In the United States, laboratories may also be funded by means of federal, state, personal, non-profit, or academically. The ultimate accounts for 72% of the investment. There is no central monitoring company responsible for monitoring laboratories and requirements range according to funding, the age of the laboratory, and is dependent on the size and whether it is SA approved.[82]

High-containment labs which can be registered with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Select Agent Program will have to adhere to Department of Defense requirements.[83] No unmarried federal company, consistent with 12 agencies' responses to a GSA survey, has the undertaking to track the total selection of BSL-3 and BSL-4 labs in the United States. This approach no agency is accountable for determining the risks associated with the proliferation of those labs.[84]

See also

Aeromedical Isolation Team Biosafety Biocontainment Biological hazard Hazmat go well with Interplanetary contamination Laboratory Response Network Safety engineering Security engineering Select agent

References

^ a b .mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")appropriate 0.1em heart/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")correct 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolour:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:lend a hand.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")correct 0.1em center/12px no-repeat.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolour:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintshow:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit"Integrated Research Facility". niaid.nih.gov. NIAID. Archived from the original on 28 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014. ^ Chosewood LC, Wilson DE, eds. (2009). Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (fifth ed.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ISBN 978-0-1608-5042-4. Retrieved 1 April 2020. ^ Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to organic brokers at paintings (7th person directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) ^ Canada, Public Health Agency of. "Chapter 2: The Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines: 3rd Edition 2004 – Biological safety - Canada.ca". www.canada.ca. Archived from the unique on 23 February 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018. ^ Laboratory Safety Monograph: A Supplement to the NIH Guidelines for Recombinant DNA Research. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Office of Research Safety. 1978. passim. ^ "Biosafety at Ryerson" (PDF). Ryerson University Facilities Management and Design. Retrieved 4 February 2021. ^ Covt, Norman M. (1997), “A History of Fort Detrick, Maryland” Archived 2008-09-22 at the Wayback Machine, 3rd version. Kaempf retired from Fort Detrick in 1994, having completed more than 50 years carrier. He was chief of the mechanical branch, Directorate of Engineering and Housing. ^ Manuel S. Barbeito; Richard H. Kruse. "A History of the American Biological Safety Association". American Biological Safety Association. Archived from the unique on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008. ^ a b c "American Biological Safety Association Collection : NAL Collections : National Agricultural Library". United States Department of Agriculture: National Agricultural Library. 11 February 2009. Archived from the unique on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2009. ^ "CSIRO: Geelong - Australian Animal Health Laboratory". ^ a b c d e f g h i j ok l m n o p "Section IV-Laboratory Biosafety Level Criteria". Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, fifth ed (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. December 2009. pp. 30–59. Archived (PDF) from the authentic on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016. ^ a b c d e Richmond JY. "The 1, 2, 3's of Biosafety Levels" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2016. ^ "Health & Safety Manual - Biological Safety". Columbia University Environmental Health and Safety. Archived from the unique on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016. ^ a b "Section III-Principles of Biosafety". Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. December 2009. pp. 22–28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016. ^ a b c For a list of infectious brokers and the beneficial biosafety level at which they must be studied, see "Section VIII-Agent Summary Statements". Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. December 2009. pp. 123–289. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016. ^ Penzenstadler, Nick (28 May 2015). "State incidents highlight bioterror lab concerns". Post Crescent. USA Today Network. ^ "APPENDIX E LIST OF LABS IDENTIFIED IN LOW-RESOURCE COUNTRIES". National Academy of Sciences. 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2021. ^ "Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and Processing Specimens Associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Lab Biosafety Guidelines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 1 April 2020. ^ a b c "Section VIII-Agent Summary Statements". Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, fifth ed (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. December 2009. p. 219. Archived (PDF) from the authentic on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2016. ^ Seligson, Susan (7 March 2013). "Video Offers Glimpse of Biosafety Level 4 Lab Science webcast "threads the NEIDL"". BU Today. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014. ^ a b How to Protect Mars Samples on Earth. Jeremy Hsu, Space.com. 3 December 2009. ^ a b EURO EURO-CARES Extraterrestrial Sample Curation Facility: Architecture as an enabler of science. (PDF) Aurore Hutzler, Emre Kilic, Allan Bennett, Ludovic Ferrière. forty seventh International Conference on Environmental Systems, 16-20 July 2017, Charleston, South Carolina. Document ICES-2017-323. ^ EURO-CARES. European Curation of Astromaterials Returned from Exploration of Space. Accessed: 25 September 2018. ^ Ronald Atlas (2002). "Mars Sample Return Receiving Facility" (PDF). NASA. ^ a b "7: "Sample-Receiving Facility and Program Oversight"". Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions (Report). National Research Council. 2009. p. 59. ^ Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations (Planetary Protection Office Summary) Task Group on Issues in Sample Return. National Academies Press, Washington, DC (1997) ^ a b Mobile/Modular BSL-4 Facilities for Meeting Restricted Earth Return Containment Requirements. M. J. Calaway, F. M. McCubbin, J. H. Allton, R. A. Zeigler, and L. F. Pace. (PDF) NASA. 2017. ^ European Science Foundation - Mars Sample Return backward contamination - Strategic recommendation and necessities Archived 2016-06-02 at the Wayback Machine ^ a b "High-Containment Biosafety Laboratories: Preliminary Observations on the Oversight of the Proliferation of BSL-3 and BSL-4 Laboratories in the United States" (PDF). United States Government Accountability Office. 4 October 2007. Archived (PDF) from the authentic on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2016. ^ "Risk Analysis:Risk of Importing Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Susceptible Species and Products from a region of Patagonia, Argentina" (PDF). U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Import Export Services, Veterinary Services. January 2014. pp. 60–62. Archived (PDF) from the unique on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016. ^ "Members: The Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity". Global Virus Network. Archived from the unique on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016. ^ Racaniello V (14 July 2014). "Visiting biosafety level-4 laboratories". Virology Blog. Archived from the unique on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016. ^ "Laboratories: High Security/Quarantine". Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory. Archived from the authentic on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016. ^ "Lanagro/MG é o primeiro do Brasil com nível de biossegurança máximo". MAPA - Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. August 2014. Archived from the authentic on 23 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2018. ^ http://webarchive.bac-lac.gc.ca:8080/wayback/20071213074113/http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/nr-cp/1999/1999_81_e.html ^ "National Microbiology Laboratory (NML) Overview". Public Health Agency of Canada. Archived from the unique on 21 March 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016. ^ "China Inaugurates the First Biocontainment Level 4 Laboratory in Wuhan". Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. 3 February 2015. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016. ^ "China launches high-level biosafety lab". Xinhua. 8 August 2018. Archived from the original on 14 October 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2019. ^ "Biological Defence Department at Techonin". Ministry of Defense & Armed Forces of the Czech Republic. Archived from the unique on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016. ^ "Un laboratoire militaire hautement sécurisé à Brétigny en 2015". Le Parisien (in French). 20 May 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2020. ^ "Jean Mérieux BSL-4 Laboratory". Fondation Mérieux. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016. ^ "Inauguration du laboratoire biologique P4 de la DGA" (in French). Ministére de la Défense. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016. ^ "Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville" (in French). CIRMF. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014. ^ "Das Hochsicherheitslabor im Robert Koch-Institut". Robert Koch Institut. Archived from the authentic on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016. ^ "Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine (BNI)". Heinrich Pette Institute. Archived from the authentic on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016. ^ "Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Germany". Caverion. Archived from the authentic on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016. ^ "Philipps-University Marburg". Philipps-University Marburg. Archived from the authentic on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016. ^ "Division of Virology". Országos Epidemiológiai Központ. Archived from the unique on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2016. ^ "Bio-containment Laboratory". National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, India. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016. ^ "Stone laid for stem cell research lab in Hyderabad". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016. ^ "NIV Prune lab gets BSL-4". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2016. ^ "Storia dell'Istituto" (in Italian). IRCCS Lazzaro Spallanzani. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2016. ^ "Deadly disease lab opens amid local fears". Japan Times. 15 October 2015. Archived from the authentic on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016. ^ "Bio lab handling highly dangerous agents to open in suburban Tokyo". Japan Bullet. 3 August 2015. Archived from the unique on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018. ^ "DSO biosafety lab to get S million upgrade to handle more lethal and infectious viruses". DSO National Laboratories. Retrieved 4 March 2021. ^ "South Africa National Institute for Communicable Diseases". African National Public Health Institutes. Archived from the authentic on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2016. ^ "P4-laboratoriet vid Folkhälsomyndigheten" (in Swedish). Public Health Agency of Sweden. Archived from the authentic on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. ^ Cherpillod, P. "Management of suspect viral hemorrhagic fever patient in Geneva". Schweizerische Union fur Labormedizin. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016. ^ a b "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction" (PDF). Switzerland Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection, and Sports. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016. ^ https://www.ivi.admin.ch/ivi/en/home.html ^ https://www.blv.admin.ch/blv/en/home.html ^ "Case of SARS reported in a laboratory research worker in Taiwan". Eurosurveillance. 18 December 2003. Archived from the authentic on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016. ^ Ewen Callaway (6 June 2013). "London biomedical hub sets its research agenda". Nature. Archived from the authentic on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2016. ^ a b c d e f g h Davison N; Lentzos F (2012). "E8: High-Containment Laboratories-UK Case Study". Biosecurity Challenges of the Global Expansion of High-Containment Biological Laboratories. pp. 176–177. ISBN 978-0-309-22575-5. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2016. ^ a b Nisii, Carla; Castilletti, Concetta; Raoul, Hervé; Hewson, Roger; Brown, David; Gopal, Robin; Eickmann, Markus; Gunther, Stephan; Mirazimi, Ali; Koivula, Tuija; Feldmann, Heinz; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Ippolito, Giuseppe (2013). "Biosafety Level-4 Laboratories in Europe: Opportunities for Public Health, Diagnostics, and Research". PLOS Pathogens. 9 (1): e1003105. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003105. PMC 3547859. PMID 23349630. ^ "About DVBD - Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) - NCEZID - CDC". www.cdc.gov. 17 April 2018. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018. ^ "Operating a BSL-4 Laboratory in a University Setting". Tradeline. 16 December 2003. Archived from the unique on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. ^ "Leveraging the National Bio and Agro-defense Facility". Kansas State University. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. ^ "An Integrated Research Facility: Questions and Answers". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Archived from the authentic on 22 June 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. ^ "Integrated Research Facility Overview". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. Archived from the unique on 5 July 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. ^ "National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center". Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the authentic on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. ^ "USAMRIID: Biodefense Solutions to Protect our Nation". U.S. Army Medical Department. Archived from the unique on 5 June 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. ^ "USAMRIID Biological Safety". U.S. Army Medical Department. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. ^ "NEIDL Goes Public: BU Biosafety Labs Offer Tours to Press, Politicians". Retrieved 30 December 2018. ^ "NEIDL BSL-4 Lab Gets Green Light". Retrieved 30 December 2018. ^ "National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories: About - Mission and Safety". Boston University. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. ^ "Rocky Mountain Labs Overview". National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease. Archived from the unique on 29 April 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. ^ "Galveston National Laboratory Fact Sheet". Archived from the unique on 5 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014. ^ "Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases: Safety and Biocontainment". UTMB Health. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016. ^ "About Texas Biomed: Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory". Texas Biomedical Research Institute. Archived from the authentic on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016. ^ "SUMMARY REPORT DUAL USE RESEARCH ON MICROBES: Biosafety, Biosecurity, Responsibility" (PDF). Volkswagen Foundation. 12 December 2014. ^ NCMVCA learn about Archived 2017-01-31 at the Wayback Machine- Retrieved 2017-01-19 ^ DoD Safety Standards for Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories Archived 2017-01-25 at the Wayback Machine- Retrieved 2017-01-19 ^ GAO publication Archived 2017-01-20 at the Wayback Machine- Retrieved 2017-01-19

External hyperlinks

Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories CDC Federation of American Scientists: Biosafety Level 3 and 4 LabsvteBiological conflict and bioterrorismModern incidents 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror assault 1989 California medfly assault 2001 anthrax attacks Wood Green ricin plot 2003 ricin letters 2013 ricin lettersPreventionand response Australia Group Caribbean Public Health Agency Center for Health Security Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Defense Threat Reduction Agency European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Global Health Security Initiative Health Threat Unit Laboratory Response Network India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious DiseasesBiological brokers Anthrax Avian influenza Botulinum toxin Brucellosis Burkholderia pseudomallei Chlamydophila psittaci Coxiella burnetii Ebola Equine encephalitis (Eastern Western Venezuelan) Foodborne sickness Fungi Glanders Hantavirus Henipavirus Legionnaires' illness Marburg virus Mold Plague Ricin Salmonella enterica Salmonellosis Salmonella typhi Smallpox Staphylococcus Tularemia Typhus Viral hemorrhagic feverRelated ideas Agro-terrorism Anthrax hoaxes Psychochemical weapons Bacteria Biocontainment Biological danger Biological warfare in pop culture Ethnic bioweapon Decontamination Entomological warfare Infectious disease Virus Toxin TerrorismInternational law Geneva Protocol Biological Weapons Convention United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540  War portal Wiktionary definition Wikimedia Commons Wikisource vteUnited States organic protection programOrganizationsFederaladministrativeDHS DHS Chemical and Biological Defense Division DHS Office of Health Affairs (National Biosurvelliance Integration Center, BioWatch) National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility National Bioforensic Analysis CenterDNI National Counterproliferation Center (Advisory Committee on Bioterrorism)DHHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response Division of Select Agents and Toxins (CDC) National Science Advisory Board for BiosecurityDoD Assistant SECDEF for NCB Defense Programs Defense Threat Reduction Agency Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Joint Program Executive Office of Chemical and Biological Defense (JPEO-CBD) National Center for Medical IntelligenceFederalresearchTrans-departmental National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (National Interagency Biodefense Campus, Fort Detrick) Integrated National Biodefense Medical Countermeasures Portfolio (DHHS/DoD)Military U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Dugway Proving GroundCivilian Galveston National Laboratory (UTMB/NIAID) Integrated Research Facility (HHS/NIAID) Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (HHS) Homeland Security Research Program (EPA/DHS) Plum Island Animal Disease Center (USDA) Foreign Disease Weed Science Research Unit (USDA)ResponseLocal Local Health DepartmentsState State Health Departments Nebraska Biocontainment Patient Care UnitFederal National Medical Response Team/National Pharmacy Response Team (NDMS, HHS) Chemical Biological Incident Response Force (USMC) Epidemic Intelligence Service (CDC) Aeromedical Biological Containment System (CDC) Bioterror Rapid Response and Advanced Technology Laboratory (CDC)Non-governmentalAcademic centersand assume tanks Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security (formerly Center for Biosecurity) Henry L. Stimson Center Center for Advancing Microbial Risk Assessment Center for Biodefense and Emerging Pathogens (Brown University) Middle-Atlantic Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Center for Biodefense Immune Modeling (University of Rochester) Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases (NCBID; George Mason Univ.)Governmentcontractors Battelle Memorial Institute SRI International Idaho Technology Phoenix AirProgramsand tasksThreat relief Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, including the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (DoD) Project Bacchus Project Clear Vision Project JeffersonBiosurveillance National Biosurveillance Strategy Laboratory Response Network (CDC) BioWatch (EPA, CDC) Global Bio-Surveillance Technology Initiative (GBTI), Bio-Surveillance Management Office (BMO) (part of JPEO-CBD) ESSENCE (DoD) RODS (Civilian)Biosecurity/Biosurety Select Agent Program (CDC) Personnel Reliability Program (DoD)Medical intelligence National Intelligence Assessments on Infectious DiseasesDisaster reaction National Response Framework of the National Strategy for Homeland Security (DHS; together with NIMS and ICS) National Disaster Medical System (DHHS) Strategic National Stockpile (CDC, DHS)Technologyand equipmentProtection MOPP NBC go well with RespiratorsDetection Cell CANARY Biological Materials MASINT Autonomous Pathogen Detection System Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS)Biocontainment Biosafety level Biosafety cabinet Positive pressure team of workers suitLawTreaties Geneva Protocol (1925, 1975) Statement on Chemical and Biological Defense Policies and Programs (1969) Biological Weapons Convention (1972)Legislation Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989 Executive Order 13139 (1999) Patriot Act (2001) Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response Act (2002) Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002 Project Bioshield Act (2004) Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005 Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (2005) Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act (2006) Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013Internationalrepresentation Global Health Security Initiative Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)HistoryPast biologicalincidents 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror assault 1989 California medfly assault 2001 anthrax assaults Wood Green ricin plot (2002) 2003 ricin letters 2013 ricin lettersDefunct organizationsand techniques United States Army Medical Unit United States biological guns program Sunshine Project Aeromedical Isolation Team (DoD)Related subjects Agro-terrorism Biodefense Biosecurity in the United States Biological agent Biological danger Biological battle (BW) Biosurveillance Bioterrorism CBRN defense Decontamination Entomological battle Isolation (well being care) Select agent Smallpox virus retention debate

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Biosafety_level&oldid=1014271646"

The Biosafety Level BSL For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is A | Course Hero

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, Biosafety, Level, Introductory, Microbiology, Laboratories, Course

The Biosafety Level BSL For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is A | Course Hero

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, Biosafety, Level, Introductory, Microbiology, Laboratories, Course

Test Bank For Microbiology An Introduction 12th Edition By Tortora And Funke And Case By Qiaua41 - Issuu

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, Microbiology, Introduction, Edition, Tortora, Funke, Qiaua41, Issuu

Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated From The Respiratory Or Intestinal Tracts Of | Course Hero

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, Pathogenic, Bacteria, Isolated, Respiratory, Intestinal, Tracts, Course

MCB Test 5.docx - MCB Test 5 Which Of The Following Organelles Most Closely Resembles A Prokaryotic Cell Mitochondrion Which One Of The Following Pairs | Course Hero

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, 5.docx, Which, Following, Organelles, Closely, Resembles, Prokaryotic, Mitochondrion, Pairs, Course

Chapter 6 Quiz.docx - Chapter 6 Quiz Figure 6.2 Shows A Typical Bacterial Growth Curve With The Y-axis Indicating The Log Of The Number Of Bacteria And | Course Hero

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, Chapter, Quiz.docx, Figure, Shows, Typical, Bacterial, Growth, Curve, Y-axis, Indicating, Number, Bacteria, Course

Test 4 (1).docx - Question 1 1 Out Of 1 Points Most Pathogenic Bacteria Are Thermophiles Answer True S Fals E Question 2 1 Out Of 1 Points Figure 6.2 | Course Hero

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, (1).docx, Question, Points, Pathogenic, Bacteria, Thermophiles, Answer, Figure, Course

Test 4 (1).docx - Question 1 1 Out Of 1 Points Most Pathogenic Bacteria Are Thermophiles Answer True S Fals E Question 2 1 Out Of 1 Points Figure 6.2 | Course Hero

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, (1).docx, Question, Points, Pathogenic, Bacteria, Thermophiles, Answer, Figure, Course

Microbiology Ch6 - Microbiology An Introduction 11e(Tortora\/Case Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 6.1 Multiple Choice Questions Figure 6.1 1 In Figure 6.1 | Course Hero

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, Microbiology, Introduction, 11e(Tortora\/Case, Chapter, Microbial, Growth, Multiple, Choice, Questions, Figure, Course

BIO 220 Chapter 6 Exam 2 Questions.docx - Chapter 6 Microbial Growth Microbiology An Introduction 12e(Tortora Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 6 If Cells Are | Course Hero

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, Chapter, Questions.docx, Microbial, Growth, Microbiology, Introduction, 12e(Tortora, Cells, Course

Laboratory Biosafety Manual

The Biosafety Level Bsl For Most Introductory Microbiology Laboratories Is : biosafety, level, introductory, microbiology, laboratories, Laboratory, Biosafety, Manual